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Table 2 Relation of emotional well-being with working hours and risk factors

From: Long Working Hours and Emotional Well-Being in Korean Manufacturing Industry Employees

Variables WHO (five) well-being index
Low mood group Possible depression group
  OR * 95% CI ** OR * 95% CI **
Weekly working hours     
Reference time(35–47) 1   1  
Long time1(48 ~ 52) 0.82 0.53 - 1.26 1.36 0.82 - 2.26
Long time2(53–60) 1.26 0.78 - 2.05 2.94 1.54 - 5.59
Long time3(≥61) 1.03 0.41 - 2.58 4.35 2.18 - 8.67
Gender     
Female 1   1  
Male 1.14 0.63 - 2.04 1.12 0.64 - 1.96
Age     
<30 1   1  
30 - 39 1.27 0.63 - 2.57 0.78 0.41 - 1.47
40 - 49 1.87 0.96 - 3.65 1.00 0.49 - 2.04
≥50 1.69 0.79 - 3.64 0.97 0.42 - 2.24
Level of education     
Above college 1   1  
Graduate high school 1.04 0.69 - 1.56 1.50 0.94 - 2.39
Below middle school 0.52 0.22 - 1.21 2.01 0.86 - 4.72
Smoking     
Ex-smoker or never smoker 1   1  
Present smoker 1.20 0.78 - 1.83 1.19 0.77 - 1.85
Alcohol drinking     
No or social drinker 1   1  
High risk drinker 0.67 0.41 - 1.12 1.08 0.65 - 1.81
Diagnosed obesity     
No 1   1  
Yes 0.37 0.11 - 1.27 0.29 0.07 - 1.25
Physical activity††     
More than 3 days a week 1   1  
No or not enough 1.97 1.12 - 3.45 1.79 0.99 - 3.24
Average net monthly income(Korean Won)    
≥3,000,000 1   1  
2,000,000-2,999,999 1.06 0.63 - 1.78 0.99 0.52 - 1.9
1,000,000 ~ 1,999,999 1.11 0.61 - 2.03 1.09 0.53 - 2.24
< 1,000,000 1.53 0.74 - 3.15 0.45 0.19 - 1.10
Company size(no. of employee)    
≥300 1   1  
50-299 0.60 0.33 - 1.08 0.56 0.27 - 1.17
5-49 1.04 0.62 - 1.75 0.61 0.31 - 1.22
<5 0.97 0.40 - 2.34 0.30 0.10 - 0.96
Shift work     
No 1   1  
Yes 1.16 0.68 - 1.98 1.36 0.82 - 2.26
  1. *Odds ratio in multinomial logistic regression analysis by proc surveylogistic, **confidence interval in multinomial logistic regression analysis, reference group: who (five) well-being index score from 51 to 100, ††physical activity: sports, outdoor exercise, cultural activity, leisure activity, etc.