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Table 1 Comparisons of general characteristics on subjects according to smoking status

From: Relationship of cigarette smoking and hearing loss in workers exposed to occupational noise

  Non-smoker *(n = 2,270) Ex-smoker *(n = 2,680) Current smoker *(n = 3,593) Total (n = 8,543) p value Post-hoc comparison
Age (years) 47.5 ± 9.4 48.9 ± 8.0 43.5 ± 9.7 46.3 ± 9.4 <0.001 c < a < b
Working period (years) 23.1 ± 10.2 24.4 ± 9.2 19.8 ± 10.0 22.1 ± 10.0 <0.001 c < a < b
Noise level (decibel) 86.8 ± 3.0 86.5 ± 2.9 86.8 ± 3.1 86.7 ± 3.0 0.001 b < a,c
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.4 ± 2.3 23.5 ± 2.3 23.4 ± 2.5 23.4 ± 2.4 0.013 a < b
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 93.2 ± 8.5 93.3 ± 8.5 91.9 ± 8.5 92.7 ± 8.5 <0.001 c < a,b
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dℓ) 98.2 ± 12.0 98.9 ± 12.8 97.4 ± 12.8 98.1 ± 12.6 <0.001 c < b
Total cholesterol (mg/dℓ) 188.9 ± 31.7 191.4 ± 31.9 190.2 ± 32.3 190.2 ± 32.0 0.023 a < b
Triglyceride (mg/dℓ) 115.7 ± 71.5 123.8 ± 88.2 141.9 ± 105.8 129.3 ± 92.9 <0.001 a < c
HDL cholesterol (mg/dℓ) 53.5 ± 13.1 53.1 ± 12.9 51.4 ± 12.7 52.5 ± 12.9 <0.001 c < a,b
Hemoglobin (g/dℓ) 14.9 ± 0.9 14.9 ± 0.9 15.1 ± 0.9 15.0 ± 0.9 <0.001 a,b < c
Hematocrit (%) 43.4 ± 2.6 43.1 ± 2.6 43.9 ± 2.7 43.5 ± 2.7 <0.001 a,b < c
  (n = 735) (n = 800) (n = 1,227) (n = 2,762)   
Red blood cell count (104/mm3) 468.9 ± 32.8 465.5 ± 33.4 468.8 ± 34.2 467.9 ± 33.6 0.020 b < a,c
  (n = 1,084) (n = 1,129) (n = 1,673) (n = 3,886)   
Carboxyhemoglobin (%) 0.58 ± 0.75 0.52 ± 0.70 2.26 ± 1.83 1.29 ± 1.57 <0.001 a,b < c
  (n = 627) (n = 679) (n = 1,007) (n = 2,313)   
Pure tone audiometry of right ear (dBHL)       
1 kHz 16.4 ± 11.9 16.9 ± 12.2 15.4 ± 10.5 16.2 ± 11.4 <0.001 c < a,b
2 kHz 19.7 ± 15.2 20.3 ± 15.3 17.7 ± 13.8 19.0 ± 14.7 <0.001 c < a,b
3 kHz 28.1 ± 20.3 30.0 ± 20.8 24.8 ± 19.4 27.3 ± 20.2 <0.001 c < a < b
4 kHz 33.8 ± 22.0 36.1 ± 22.4 30.2 ± 21.7 33.0 ± 22.1 <0.001 c < a < b
  1. mean ± standard deviation.
  2. * a: Non-smoker, b: Ex-smoker, c: Current smoker.
  3. p-value was calculated by ANOVA.