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Table 2 Comparisons of pure tone audiometry threshold according to smoking status after adjusting for confounding variables

From: Relationship of cigarette smoking and hearing loss in workers exposed to occupational noise

Frequency Non-smoker *(n = 2,270) Ex-smoker *(n = 2,680) Current smoker *(n = 3,593) p value Post-hoc comparison
1 kHz 15.9 (15.47–16.37) 15.9 (15.51–16.34) 16.5 (16.10–16.83) 0.098 -
2 kHz 18.8 (18.24–19.35) 18.6 (18.04–19.07) 19.6 (19.11–20.01) 0.012 a,b < c
3 kHz 26.5 (25.81–27.22) 27.0 (26.36–27.67) 28.0 (27.43–28.58) 0.005 a,b < c
4 kHz 32.1 (31.30–32.80) 32.5 (31.84–33.24) 33.9 (33.34–34.55) <0.001 a,b < c
  1. mean (95% confidence interval), dBHL.
  2. * a: Non-smoker, b: Ex-smoker, c: Current smoker.
  3. p-value was calculated by ANCOVA and adjusted for age, working period, noise level, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, hemoglobin.