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Table 1 The relationship between general characteristics, work-related factors, and presenteeism

From: Association among Working Hours, Occupational Stress, and Presenteeism among Wage Workers: Results from the Second Korean Working Conditions Survey

    Presenteeism  
  N† % n % p-value*
Gender      
Female 2928 41.2 649 22.2 <0.001
Male 4184 58.8 692 16.5  
Age      
<30 1481 20.8 219 14.8 <0.001
30-39 2057 28.9 404 19.6  
40-49 1880 26.4 386 20.5  
50-59 1155 16.2 225 19.5  
≥60 539 7.6 107 19.8  
Educational status      
< Middle school 973 13.7 212 21.8 0.004
High school 2966 41.7 512 17.3  
> College 3172 44.6 616 19.4  
Smoking      
non-smoker 3884 54.6 790 20.3 0.002
ex-smoker 697 9.8 114 16.4  
smoker 2531 35.6 436 17.2  
Drinking frequency      
none 1938 27.2 378 19.5 0.473
≤1 per week 2965 41.7 564 19.0  
≥2 per week 2209 31.1 399 18.1  
Hypertension      
No 6622 93.1 1198 18.1 <0.001
Yes 489 6.9 143 29.2  
Obesity      
No 6886 96.8 1254 18.2 <0.001
Yes 226 3.2 87 38.5  
Depressive symptoms      
No 6999 98.4 1272 18.2 <0.001
Yes 112 1.6 68 60.7  
Employment status      
Regular 4568 64.2 878 19.2 0.291
Temporary 2544 35.8 463 18.2  
Job type      
White collar 3081 43.3 606 19.7 0.043
Service 1350 19.0 223 16.5  
Blue collar 2680 37.7 511 19.1  
Number of employees      
< 5 1526 22.3 285 18.7 0.088
5-49 3295 48.4 599 18.2  
50-299 1315 19.3 246 18.7  
≥ 300 689 10.0 157 22.8  
Tenure (yr)      
< 1 1477 20.8 218 14.8 <0.001
1-10 4084 57.4 826 20.2  
≥10 1550 21.8 296 19.1  
Physical risk exposure      
Unexposed 4348 61.1 745 17.1 <0.001
Exposed 2764 38.9 596 21.6  
Biological/chemical risk exposure     
Unexposed 5126 72.1 887 17.3 <0.001
Exposed 1985 27.9 453 22.8  
Ergonomic risk exposure     
Unexposed 1541 21.7 264 17.1 0.052
Exposed 5569 78.3 1076 19.3  
  1. *Based on the chi-squared test.
  2. †All numbers reflect weighted frequencies.