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Table 2 Reported exposure to factors harmful to pulmonary function in 2008 for the total population

From: Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea

Harmful substances n Mean Minimum Maximum Exposure limit
Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (ppm) 37 ND* ND ND 0.005
Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (ppm) 38 ND ND ND 0.005
Toluene-2,6-diisocyanate (ppm) 36 ND ND ND 0.005
Aluminium (mg/m3) (metal dust) 55 0.01156 0.00088 0.24009 10
Chromium (mg/m3) (metal) 29 0.00074 0.00011 0.00292 0.5
Iron oxide (mg/m3) (dust and fume) 35 0.03253 0.00158 0.04759 5
Cobalt (mg/m3) (dust and fume) 57 0.00194 0.00194 0.00194 0.02
Tungsten (mg/m3) (insoluble compounds) 11 ND ND ND 5
Mineral dust (mg/m3) 36 0.76358 0.239 2.014 10
Grain dust (mg/m3) 4 1.691 1.691 1.691 4
Nickel (mg/m3) (metal) 9 0.00047 0.00009 0.00169 1
Tin (mg/m3) (metal) 4 0.00952 ND 0.0127 2
Welding fume (mg/m3) 22 0.685 0.685 0.685 5
  1. *ND Not detectable.
  2. As reported by the Ministry of Employment and Labor in 2013.