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Table 2 General characteristics of the selected population according to number of working hours per week

From: Effect of Long Working Hours on Self-reported Hypertension among Middle-aged and Older Wage Workers

Characteristics Number of working hours per week
≤40 41–50 51–60 ≥61 p
(n = 476) (n = 366) (n = 199) (n = 165)
Male, n (%) 286 (67.9) 223 (66.2) 117 (65.7) 77 (53.8) 0.022
Age, years (SD) 52.1 (5.8) 52.0 (5.7) 52.3 (6.6) 54.1 (7.1) *0.003
Education      
  Elementary school graduation or less 83 (19.7) 51 (15.1) 39 (21.9) 45 (31.5) <0.001
  Middle school graduation 65 (15.4) 70 (20.8) 39 (21.9) 43 (30.1)  
  High school graduation 156 (37.1) 148 (43.9) 80 (44.9) 47 (32.9)  
  College graduation or beyond 117 (27.8) 68 (20.2) 80 (11.2) 8 (5.6)  
Income (won)      
  ≤990,000 134 (31.8) 76 (22.6) 41 (23.0) 61 (42.7) <0.001
  1,000,000-1,990,000 98 (23.3) 117 (34.7) 86 (48.3) 61 (42.7)  
  2,000,000-2,990,000 59 (14.0) 71 (21.1) 33 (18.5) 15 (10.5)  
  ≥3,000,000 117 (27.8) 64 (19.0) 13 (7.3) 4 (2.8)  
  Neglect to answer 13 (3.1) 9 (2.7) 5 (2.8) 2 (1.4)  
Occupation      
  Managers, professional and experts 93 (22.1) 62 (18.4) 16 (9.0) 3 (2.1) <0.001
  Engineers, semi-experts 36 (8.6) 22 (6.5) 3 (1.7) 2 (1.4)  
  Office workers 48 (11.4) 32 (9.5) 16 (9.0) 4 (2.8)  
  Service and sales workers 46 (10.9) 32 (9.5) 30 (16.9) 49 (34.3)  
  Skilled agricultural, forestry and fisheries workers 7 (1.7) 5 (1.6) 3 (1.7) 3 (1.7)  
  Craft and related trades workers 39 (9.3) 50 (14.8) 33 (18.5) 9 (6.3)  
  Machine operators, assembly workers 41 (9.7) 43 (12.8) 26 (14.6) 22 (15.4)  
  Elementary workers 111 (26.4) 91 (27.0) 51 (28.7) 51 (35.7)  
Form of employment      
  Regular 281 (66.7) 264 (78.3) 138 (77.5) 89 (62.2) <0.001
  Temporary or part-time 140 (33.3) 73 (21.7) 40 (22.5) 54 (37.8)  
BMI      
  kg/m2 (SD) 23.25 (2.8) 23.2 (2.5) 23.0 (2.5) 23.0 (2.8) *0.731
Alcohol habit      
  Yes, n (%) 261 (62.0) 188 (55.8) 99 (55.6) 78 (54.5) 0.208
Smoking habit      
  Current smoker, n (%) 141 (33.5) 95 (28.2) 55 (30.9) 53 (37.1) 0.215
Exercise      
  Less than once a week, n(%) 212 (50.4) 200 (59.3) 130 (73.0) 104 (72.7) <0.001
Working days per week      
  ≥6 days, n (%) 40 (9.5) 230 (68.2) 159 (89.3) 111 (77.6) <0.001
Self-reported hypertension during follow-up      
  Yes, n (%) 24 (5.7) 31 (9.2) 14 (7.9) 16 (11.2) 0.126
  1. *p-value of Kruskal–Wallis test. Others were calculated by Pearson’s chi-squared test.