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Table 2 Vitamin D status according to variables (Male)

From: Vitamin D status and associated occupational factors in Korean wage workers: data from the 5th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)

  Vitamin D (ng/ml) Vitamin D p-value
≥20 ng/ml <20 ng/ml
Mean (S.E)° N§ %(S.E) N %(S.E)
Total 17.8(0.175) 7434830 30.5(1.3) 16921262 69.5(1.3)  
Age (years) 20-29 16.7(0.314) 1204327 22.8(2.6) 4068221 77.2(2.6) <0.001
30-39 17.3(0.240) 2139963 27.5(1.9) 5636522 72.5(1.9)
40-49 18.3(0.284) 2230488 34.0(2.4) 4330483 66.0(2.4)
50-65 19.2(0.291) 1860052 39.2(2.3) 2886036 60.8(2.3)
Body mass index (BMI) (n = 5393) <23 17.7(0.248) 2706131 29.7(1.8) 6390223 70.3(1.8) 0.711
23-25 18.1(0.250) 1959023 31.9(2.2) 4177771 68.1(2.2)
≥25 17.8(0.229) 2769676 30.7(1.9) 6263714 69.3(1.9)
Dietary supplementation (n = 4590) Yes 18.4(0.226) 3515136 35.1(2.0) 8538062 64.9(2.0) 0.015
No 17.6(0.226) 2489982 29.2(1.7) 4608936 70.8(1.7)
Physical activity Yes 18.8(0.463) 942016 38.5(3.7) 1501849 61.5(3.7) 0.17
No 17.7(0.178) 6492814 29.6(1.4) 15419414 70.4(1.6)
Drinking Yes 17.8(0.177) 5860951 30.6(1.4) 13320375 69.4(1.4) 0.958
No 17.7(0.348) 1573879 30.4(2.6) 3600887 69.6(2.6)
Smoking status None/ex-smoker 17.9(0.194) 3787159 30.7(1.6) 8534766 69.3(1.6) 0.828
Current smoker 17.7(0.228) 3647671 30.3(1.7) 8386496 69.3(1.7)
Marital status Married 18.3(0.186) 5891190 33.7(1.5) 11592550 66.3(1.5) <0.001
Unmarried 16.6(0.281) 1543640 22.5(2.0) 5328712 77.5(2.0)
Income (quartile) Low 18.1(0.541) 549598 34.8(4.8) 1027913 65.2(4.8) 0.546
Middle low 18.0(0.299) 2183872 31.9(2.4) 4670497 68.1(2.4)
Middle high 17.6(0.232) 2641618 29.9(1.8) 6183484 70.1(1.8)
High 17.9(0.228) 2059742 29.0(1.8) 5039367 71.0(1.8)
Education Less than elementary school 19.1(0.682) 359510 40.1(6.2) 536938 59.9(6.2) <0.001
Middle school 19.4(0.523) 600130 43.6(4.3) 777380 56.4(4.3)
High school 18.3(0.296) 2782314 34.8(2.1) 5208570 65.2(2.1)
More than college 17.3(0.189) 3692876 26.2(1.5) 10398374 73.8(1.5)
Shift work Yes 17.0(0.316) 1119179 24.4(2.3) 3458301 75.6(2.3) 0.004
No 18.0(0.185) 6315651 31.9(1.5) 13462961 68.1(1.5)
Stability of work Permanent worker 17.6(0.171) 5746351 28.9(1.3) 14165812 71.1(1.3) 0.003
Temporary worker 18.8(0.379) 1688479 38.0(3.2) 2755451 62.0(3.2)
Employment type Part-time worker 17.8(0.542) 493566 28.4(4.3) 1245957 71.6(4.3) 0.593
Full-time worker 17.8(0.174) 6941264 30.7(1.3) 15675306 69.3(1.3)
Occupation Office worker 17.3(0.192) 2918874 26.2(1.6) 8205357 73.8(1.6) <0.001
Service worker 17.1(0.375) 768684 26.2(3.4) 2164465 73.8(3.4)
Manufacturing worker 18.6(0.273) 3747272 36.4(2.0) 6551440 63.6(2.0)
Working hours/week <40 17.9(0.365) 1188552 31.4(2.7) 2595496 68.6(2.7) 0.874
40-52 17.7(0.211) 3820692 29.8(1.7) 9001176 70.2(1.7)
52-60 18.0(0.379) 942670 32.3(3.4) 1976736 67.7(3.4)
≥60 17.9(0.290) 1482916 30.7(2.5) 3347854 69.3(2.5)
  1. S.E; standard error, § estimated population size.