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Table 3 Vitamin D status according to variables (Female)

From: Vitamin D status and associated occupational factors in Korean wage workers: data from the 5th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)

  Vitamin D (ng/ml) Vitamin D p-value
≥20 ng/ml <20 ng/ml
Mean (S.E)° N§ %(S.E) N %(S.E)
Total 15.6(0.163) 2748248 16.9(1.1) 13530639 83.1(1.1)  
Age (years) 20-29 14.1(0.251) 383860 8.4(1.6) 4159095 91.6(1.6) <0.001
30-39 15.3(0.283) 542108 14.9(1.9) 3098926 85.1(1.9)
40-49 15.6(0.268) 724950 16.7(2.0) 3613641 83.3(2.0)
50-65 17.5(0.271) 1097330 29.2(2.1) 2658978 70.8(2.1)
Body mass index (BMI) (n = 5393) <23 15.3(0.195) 1457436 15.3(1.2) 8095076 84.7(1.2) 0.033
23-25 16.2(0.293) 642163 21.2(2.2) 2382941 78.8(2.2)
≥25 15.5(0.249) 631525 17.3(1.9) 3026934 82.7(1.9)
Dietary supplementation (n = 4590) Yes 16.4(0.224) 1587530 22.1(1.6) 5583799 77.9(1.6) <0.001
No 14.7(0.194) 874424 12.0(1.2) 6426624 88.0(1.2)
Physical activity Yes 16.4(0.440) 260879 19.0(3.2) 1110135 81.0(3.2) 0.455
No 15.5(0.164) 2487369 16.7(1.1) 12415666 83.3(1.1)
Drinking Yes 15.7(0.212) 1380747 16.0(1.4) 7252876 84.0(1.4) 0.298
No 15.4(0.199) 1367501 17.9(1.4) 6277763 82.1(1.4)
Smoking status None/ex-smoker 15.5(0.161) 2495022 16.7(1.0) 12432922 83.3(1.0) 0.564
Current smoker 15.7(0.498) 253226 18.7(3.8) 1097717 81.3(3.8)
Marital status Married 16.2(0.187) 2321272 20.4(1.3) 9058540 79.6(1.3) <0.001
Unmarried 14.1(0.234) 426976 8.7(1.3) 4472099 91.3(1.3)
Income (quartile) Low 16.9(0.502) 368499 27.6(3.7) 968252 72.4(3.7) <0.001
Middle low 15.9(0.287) 932271 21.3(2.1) 3434927 78.7(2.1)
Middle high 15.3(0.234) 758403 13.7(1.5) 4762438 86.3(1.5)
High 15.3(0.234) 689075 13.6(1.5) 4365022 86.4(1.5)
Education Less than elementary school 17.5(0.366) 467909 30.7(3.1) 1056651 69.3(3.1) <0.001
Middle school 17.1(0.436) 370744 24.0(2.9) 1174167 76.0(2.9)
High school 15.3(0.240) 978233 17.2(1.8) 4698721 82.8(1.8)
More than college 15.0(0.198) 931362 12.4(1.2) 6601101 87.6(1.2)
Shift work Yes 14.8(0.314) 443644 14.4(2.1) 2637092 85.6(2.1) 0.183
No 15.7(0.172) 2304604 17.5(1.2) 10893547 82.5(1.2)
Stability of work Permanent worker 15.3(0.184) 1810551 15.3(1.2) 10038350 84.7(1.2) 0.01
Temporary worker 16.3(0.254) 937697 21.2(2.1) 3492290 78.8(2.1)
Employment type Part-time worker 16.0(0.280) 830474 21.0(2.1) 3127546 79.0(2.1) 0.014
Full-time worker 15.4(0.177) 1917774 15.6(1.2) 10403093 84.4(1.2)
Occupation Office worker 15.0(0.203) 945750 11.9(1.2) 6993107 88.1(1.2) <0.001
Service worker 15.9(0.304) 784657 19.9(2.1) 3154425 80.1(2.1)
Manufacturing worker 16.3(0.262) 1017841 23.1(2.0) 3383107 76.9(2.0)
Working hours/week <40 16.1(0.217) 1168254 19.9(1.7) 4701664 80.1(1.7) 0.029
40-52 15.2(0.201) 1077340 14.1(1.2) 6549011 85.9(1.2)
52-60 15.3(0.472) 243282 17.8(3.5) 1126308 82.2(3.5)
≥60 15.2(0.435) 259372 18.4(3.2) 1153657 81.6(3.2)
  1. S.E; standard error, § estimated population size.