Skip to main content

Table 1 Differences between those who concealed or did not conceal their emotions at work

From: The association between concealing emotions at work and medical utilization in Korea

Variables Concealing emotions at work N(%)
Yes No P-value
Gender Male 1454 (52.6) 2383 (55.0) 0.051
  Female 1309 (47.4) 1948 (45.0)  
Age 20 ~ 29 455 (16.5) 713 (16.5) 0.404
  30 ~ 39 910 (32.9) 1349 (31.1)  
  40 ~ 49 961 (34.8) 1575 (36.4)  
  50 ~ 54 437 (15.8) 694 (16.0)  
Alcohol intake* Heavy drinking 498 (18.0) 787 (18.2) 0.884
  Moderate drinking 1369 (49.6) 2121 (49.0)  
  Non-drinking 893 (32.4) 1420 (32.8)  
Smoking Current 875 (31.7) 1346 (31.1) 0.612
  Never or past 1885 (68.3) 2982 (68.9)  
BMI Low 123 ( 4.5) 187 ( 4.4) 0.816
  Normal 1756 (63.9) 2716 (63.3)  
  Obese 869 (31.6) 1387 (32.3)  
Work type Paid worker 1797 (65.1) 2883 (66.6) 0.199
  Self-employed 964 (34.9) 1446 (33.4)  
Work schedule Shift worker 616 (22.3) 769 (17.8) <0.001
  Day worker 2141 (77.7) 3552 (82.2)  
Married Yes 2243 (81.6) 3491 (81.2) 0.700
  No 507 (18.4) 810 (18.8)  
Region Urban 1280 (46.3) 1897 (43.8) 0.039
  Rural 1483 (53.7) 2434 (56.2)  
Income§ High 1406 (51.6) 2224 (52.1) 0.675
  Low 1320 (48.4) 2043 (47.9)  
Education|| Middle school or lower 513 (18.6) 774 (17.9) 0.736
  High school 1167 (42.2) 1857 (42.9)  
  College or higher 1083 (39.2) 1699 (39.2)  
Public insurance National health insurance 2703 (98.2) 4233 (98.4) 0.084
  National medical protection 43 ( 1.6) 68 ( 1.6)  
  Nothing 5 ( 0.2) 1 ( 0.0)  
Additional private insurance Yes 2284 (84.4) 3567 (84.3) 0.967
  No 423 (15.6) 664 (15.7)  
Chronic Disease Yes 1384 (50.1) 1896 (43.8) <0.001
  No 1379 (49.9) 2435 (56.2)  
Hospitalization Yes 267 ( 9.7) 333 ( 7.7) 0.004
  No 2494 (90.3) 3994 (92.3)  
Outpatients visits Yes 684 (24.8) 953 (22.0) 0.008
  No 2077 (75.2) 3377 (78.0)  
Pharmaceutical drug use Yes 782 (28.3) 1100 (25.4) 0.008
  No 1981 (71.7) 3230 (74.6)  
  1. *Heavy drinkers were those who consumed an average of ≥7 units of alcohol for men and ≥5 units for women ≥ 2 days/week. Moderate drinkers included those who consumed more than one glass of alcohol per month over the past year, and non-drinkers included those who never drink or drank less than one glass of alcohol per month over the past year.
  2. Current smokers or never/past smokers.
  3. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized into three groups as low weight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), and obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2).
  4. §Household income was estimated using the quadrants provided by the KNHANES and relabeled as high and low, which includes the top two an bottom two quadrants, respectively.
  5. ||Education was divided among those who only completed middle school or less, those who only graduated from high school or completed some high school, and those who attended college or higher.