Skip to main content

Table 2 Variable differences by hospitalization, outpatient visits and pharmaceutical drug use

From: The association between concealing emotions at work and medical utilization in Korea

Variables Hospitalization N(%) Outpatients visits N(%) Pharmaceutical drug use N(%)
Yes No P-value Yes No P-value Yes No P-value
Gender Male 292 ( 7.6) 3542 (92.4) 0.006 737 (19.2) 3098 (80.8) <0.001 863 (22.5) 2973 (77.5) <0.001
  Female 308 ( 9.5) 2946 (90.5)   900 (27.6) 2356 (72.4)   1019 (31.3) 2238 (68.7)  
Age 20 ~ 29 107 ( 9.2) 1061 (90.8) 0.090 250 (21.4) 916 (78.6) <0.001 329 (28.2) 839 (71.8) 0.001
  30 ~ 39 196 ( 8.7) 2062 (91.3)   439 (19.4) 1820 (80.6)   535 (23.7) 1724 (76.3)  
  40 ~ 49 188 ( 7.4) 2345 (92.6)   598 (23.6) 1937 (76.4)   680 (26.8) 1855 (73.2)  
  50 ~ 54 109 ( 9.7) 1020 (90.3)   350 (30.9) 781 (69.1)   338 (29.9) 793 (70.1)  
Alcohol intake* Heavy drinking 100 ( 7.8) 1184 (92.2) <0.001 245 (19.1) 1040 (80.9) <0.001 308 (24.0) 977 (76.0) 0.001
  Moderate drinking 255 ( 7.3) 3233 (92.7)   776 (22.2) 2712 (77.8)   899 (25.8) 2591 (74.2)  
  Non-drinking 245 (10.6) 2065 (89.4)   614 (26.6) 1698 (73.4)   673 (29.1) 1639 (70.9)  
Smoking Current 165 ( 7.4) 2054 (92.6) 0.041 390 (17.6) 1829 (82.4) <0.001 495 (22.3) 1726 (77.7) <0.001
  Never or past 434 ( 8.9) 4429 (91.1)   1245 (25.6) 3621 (74.4)   1385 (28.5) 3481 (71.5)  
BMI Low 23 ( 7.4) 287 (92.6) 0.485 74 (23.9) 236 (76.1) 0.082 92 (29.7) 218 (70.3) 0.341
  Normal 365 ( 8.2) 4101 (91.8)   992 (22.2) 3477 (77.8)   1171 (26.2) 3300 (73.8)  
  Obese 201 ( 8.9) 2055 (91.1)   555 (24.6) 1701 (75.4)   611 (27.1) 1645 (72.9)  
Work type Paid worker 386 ( 8.3) 4292 (91.7) 0.381 1045 (22.3) 3635 (77.7) 0.038 1218 (26.0) 3462 (74.0) 0.174
  Self-employed 214 ( 8.9) 2192 (91.1)   591 (24.6) 1816 (75.4)   664 (27.6) 1745 (72.4)  
Work schedule Shift worker 116 ( 8.4) 1268 (91.6) 0.971 300 (21.7) 1083 (78.3) 0.174 361 (26.1) 1023 (73.9) 0.686
  Day worker 481 ( 8.5) 5207 (91.5)   1335 (23.5) 4357 (76.5)   1518 (26.7) 4175 (73.3)  
Married Yes 509 ( 8.9) 5220 (91.1) 0.024 1349 (23.5) 4383 (76.5) 0.058 1507 (26.3) 4226 (73.7) 0.362
  No 91 ( 6.9) 1225 (93.1)   277 (21.0) 1039 (79.0)   363 (27.6) 954 (72.4)  
Region Urban 250 ( 7.9) 2925 (92.1) 0.117 737 (23.2) 2440 (76.8) 0.862 876 (27.6) 2300 (72.4) 0.076
  Rural 350 ( 8.9) 3563 (91.1)   900 (23.0) 3014 (77.0)   1006 (25.7) 2911 (74.3)  
Income§ High 317 ( 8.7) 3310 (91.3) 0.513 842 (23.2) 2788 (76.8) 0.990 916 (25.2) 2714 (74.8) 0.009
  Low 278 ( 8.3) 3082 (91.7)   778 (23.2) 2582 (76.8)   942 (28.0) 2420 (72.0)  
Education|| Middle school or lower 131 (10.2) 1154 (89.8) 0.040 388 (30.1) 899 (69.9) <0.001 402 (31.2) 885 (68.8) <0.001
  High school 238 ( 7.9) 2783 (92.1)   645 (21.3) 2377 (78.7)   790 (26.1) 2233 (73.9)  
  College or higher 230 ( 8.3) 2551 (91.7)   604 (21.7) 2177 (78.3)   690 (24.8) 2092 (75.2)  
Public insurance National health insurance 589 ( 8.5) 6341 (91.5) 0.658 1587 (22.9) 5346 (77.1) 0.018 1830 (26.4) 5105 (73.6) 0.111
  National medical protection 11 ( 9.9) 100 (90.1)   38 (34.2) 73 (65.8)   37 (33.3) 74 (66.7)  
  Nothing 0 ( 0.0) 6 (100.0)   1 (16.7) 5 (83.3)   3 (50.0) 3 (50.0)  
Additional private insurance Yes 511 ( 8.7) 5335 (91.3) 0.153 1376 (23.5) 4474 (76.5) 0.048 1566 (26.8) 4284 (73.2) 0.399
  No 80 ( 7.4) 1006 (92.6)   225 (20.7) 861 (79.3)   277 (25.5) 810 (74.5)  
Chronic disease Yes 314 ( 9.6) 2962 (90.4) 0.002 976 (29.8) 2303 (70.2) <0.001 1060 (32.3) 2219 (67.7) <0.001
  No 286 ( 7.5) 3526 (92.5)   661 (17.3) 3151 (82.7)   822 (21.6) 2992 (78.4)  
  1. *Heavy drinkers were those who consumed an average of ≥7 units of alcohol for men and ≥5 units for women ≥ 2 days/week. Moderate drinkers included those who consumed more than one glass of alcohol per month over the past year, and non-drinkers included those who never drink or drank less than one glass of alcohol per month over the past year.
  2. Current smokers or never/past smokers.
  3. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized into three groups as low weight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), and obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2).
  4. §Household income was estimated using the quadrants provided by the KNHANES and relabeled as high and low, which includes the top two an bottom two quadrants, respectively.
  5. ||Education was divided among those who only completed middle school or less, those who only graduated from high school or completed some high school, and those who attended college or higher.