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Table 2 Comparison of the working conditions and environments between paid and self-employed workers n (%)

From: Presenteeism among self-employed workers: Korean working conditions survey

  Paid workers Self-employed workers P-value*
Presenteeism    <0.001
 Yes 7180 (20.6) 2485 (28.9)  
 No 27603 (79.4) 6124 (71.1)  
Subjective health status
 Good 33772 (97.1) 7879 (91.5) <0.001
 Bad 1011 (2.9) 731 (8.5)  
Working condition
Average hours worked per week
 <40 3428 (9.9) 1263 (14.7) <0.001
 40-48 18507 (53.2) 1525 (17.7)  
 49-60 9734 (28.0) 3101 (36.0)  
 ≥61 3114 (9.0) 2720 (31.6)  
Satisfaction of working conditions
 Good 25422 (73.1) 5805 (67.4) <0.001
 Bad 9361 (26.9) 2804 (32.6)  
Working environments
Physical factors
 Noise requiring workers to speak in loud voice
  Yes 7793 (22.4) 1831 (21.3) 0.023
 High temperatures causing perspiration even not working
  Yes 6262 (18.0) 2506 (29.1) <0.001
Chemical factors
 Inhaling vapors such as solvents and thinners
  Yes 2196 (6.3) 444 (5.2) <0.001
 Handling or being in skin contact with chemical products or substances
  Yes 2551 (7.3) 970 (11.3) <0.001
Ergonomic factors
 Working in tiring or painful positions
  Yes 17427 (50.1) 5503 (63.9) <0.001
 Lifting or moving people
  Yes 3269 (9.4) 746 (8.7) 0.036
 Carrying or moving heavy loads
  Yes 12041 (34.6) 4736 (55.0) <0.001
 Standing or walking for extended periods of time
  Yes 21077 (60.6) 6052 (70.3) <0.001
 Repetitive hand or arm movements
  Yes 23516 (67.6) 6397 (74.3) <0.001
Emotional factors
 Working with angry customers, passengers, pupils, patients, etc.
  Yes 5583 (16.1) 1296 (15.1) 0.023
 Having to hide your feelings at work
 Yes 22008 (63.3) 5197 (60.4) <0.001
  1. *Calculated using the chi-square test.