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Table 2 Comparison of serum prostate-specific antigen levels by variables of the subjects

From: Serum prostate-specific antigen levels and type of work in tire manufacturing workers

  n (%) Serum PSA (ng/mL)
Geometric mean ± GSD* p-value Adjusted geometric mean p-value
Age (years)      
 30-39 402 (20.5) 0.728 ± 1.740 0.001 0.722 <0.001
 40-49 870 (44.4) 0.720 ± 1.820   0.719  
 50- 686 (35.1) 0.815 ± 1.916   0.823  
Waist circumference (cm)      
 <90 1,449 (74.0) 0.758 ± 1.845 0.521 0.761 0.265
 ≥90 509 (26.0) 0.743 ± 1.835   0.735  
Body mass index (kg/m2)      
 <25 1,142 (58.3) 0.756 ± 1.844 0.843 0.757 0.806
 ≥25 816 (41.7) 0.752 ± 1.840   0.751  
Hypertension      
 No 1,745 (89.1) 0.745 ± 1.830 0.016 0.747 0.046
 Yes 213 (10.9) 0.829 ± 1.928   0.816  
Diabetes mellitus      
 No 1,782 (91.0) 0.757 ± 1.832 0.412 0.758 0.225
 Yes 176 (9.0) 0.728 ± 1.952   0.716  
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)      
 <240 1,839 (93.9) 0.753 ± 1.848 0.764 0.754 0.755
 ≥240 119 (6.1) 0.766 ± 1.757   0.767  
Triglyceride (mg/dL)      
 <150 1,146 (58.5) 0.757 ± 1.848 0.694 0.760 0.512
 ≥150 812 (41.5) 0.749 ± 1.757   0.747  
HDL cholesterol§ (mg/dL)      
 ≥40 1,527 (78.0) 0.760 ± 1.856 0.093 0.761 0.202
 <40 431 (22.0) 0.736 ± 1.811   0.730  
Current smoking      
 No 1,040 (53.1) 0.744 ± 1.877 0.314 0.743 0.235
 Yes 918 (46.9) 0.765 ± 1.802   0.768  
Heavy drinker      
 No 1,445 (73.8) 0.746 ± 1.847 0.194 0.746 0.157
 Yes 513 (26.2) 0.777 ± 1.829   0.780  
Regular exercise      
 No 1,477 (75.4) 0.763 ± 1.831 0.096 0.764 0.015
 Yes 481 (24.6) 0.723 ± 1.878   0.722  
  1. *GSD: geometric standard deviation.
  2. P value was calculated by T-test or ANOVA.
  3. P value was calculated by ANCOVA, adjusted for age, body mass index, hypertension, current smoking, heavy drinker, regular exercise.
  4. §HDL-cholesterol: High density lipoprotein cholesterol.
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