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Table 1 Participants’ general and work-related characteristics

From: Fatigue and related factors among hotel workers: the effects of emotional labor and non-standard working hours

Variables Total (N = 1,016) Male (N = 620) Female (N = 396)
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Age(years)*    
  20-29 328 (32.3) 142 (22.9) 186 (47.0)
  30-39 310 (30.5) 197 (31.8) 113 (28.5)
  40-49 195 (19.2) 153 (24.7) 42 (10.6)
  ≥50 183 (18.0) 128 (20.6) 55 (13.9)
Marital status*    
  Married 524 (51.6) 373 (60.2) 151 (38.1)
  Single 492 (48.4) 247 (39.8) 245 (61.9)
Smoking*    
  No 680 (66.9) 301 (48.5) 379 (95.7)
  Yes 336 (33.1) 319 (51.5) 17 (4.3)
Alcohol drinking*    
  No 229 (22.5) 92 (14.8) 259 (34.6)
  Yes 787 (77.5) 528 (85.2) 137 (65.4)
Regular exercise*    
  No 282 (27.8) 138 (22.3) 144 (36.4)
  Yes 734 (72.2) 482 (77.7) 252 (63.6)
Daily sleeping hours    
  ≤6 516 (50.8) 309 (49.8) 207 (52.3)
  >6 500 (49.2) 311 (50.2) 189 (47.7)
Sleep satisfaction*    
  Satisfied 533 (52.5) 363 (58.5) 170 (42.9)
  Not satisfied 483 (47.5) 257 (41.5) 226 (57.1)
BMI(kg/m2)*    
  <25 781 (76.9) 422 (68.1) 359 (90.7)
  ≥25 235 (23.1) 198 (31.9) 37 (9.3)
Department*    
  Guest services 196 (19.3) 97 (15.6) 99 (25.0)
  Housekeeping 53 (5.2) 25 (4.0) 28 (7.1)
  Dining hall 312 (30.7) 157 (25.3) 155 (39.1)
  Kitchen 236 (23.2) 201 (32.4) 35 (8.8)
  Back office 139 (13.7) 62 (10.0) 77 (19.4)
  Grounds 80 (7.9) 78 (12.6) 2 (0.5)
Work tenure(years)*    
  ≤9 487 (48.0) 243 (39.2) 244 (61.6)
  10-19 295 (29.0) 189 (30.5) 106 (26.8)
  ≥20 234 (23.0) 188 (30.3) 46 (11.6)
Weekly working hours    
  ≤39 334 (32.9) 216 (34.8) 118 (29.8)
  40-59 607 (59.7) 348 (56.1) 259 (65.4)
  ≥60 75 (7.4) 56 (9.0) 19 (4.8)
Shift work    
  No 429 (42.2) 268 (43.2) 161 (40.7)
  Yes 587 (57.8) 352 (56.8) 235 (59.3)
Overtime work    
  No 502 (49.4) 291 (46.9) 211 (53.3)
  Yes 514 (50.6) 329 (53.1) 185 (44.7)
Work intensity    
  Low 595 (58.6) 376 (60.6) 219 (55.3)
  High 421 (41.4) 244 (39.4) 177 (44.7)
Emotional effort*    
  Low (Q1) 298 (29.3) 200 (32.3) 98 (24.7)
  Middle (Q2) 256 (25.2) 161 (26.0) 95 (24.0)
  High (Q3) 253 (24.9) 157 (25.3) 96 (24.2)
  Very high (Q4) 209 (20.6) 102 (16.5) 107 (27.0)
Emotional disharmony    
  Low (Q1) 235 (23.1) 150 (24.2) 85 (37.0)
  Middle (Q2) 274 (27.0) 161 (26.0) 113 (28.5)
  High (Q3) 240 (23.6) 162 (26.1) 78 (19.7)
  Very high (Q4) 267 (26.3) 147 (23.7) 120 (30.3)
  1. *p < 0.001, p < 0.05 by chi-square test.
  2. Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 indicate 1st quartile, 2nd quartile, 3rd quartile, and 4th quartile.
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