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Table 1 General characteristics of the subjects (N (%))

From: The association between long working hours and the metabolic syndrome: evidences from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2010 and 2012

Characteristics Male (n = 2475) Female (n = 1981)
N (%) Working hours per week p N (%) Working hours per week p
30-39 (n = 239) 40-48 (n = 1180) 49-59 (n = 614) ≥60 (n = 442) 30-39 (n = 423) 40-48 (n = 1025) 49-59 (n = 337) ≥60 (n = 196)
Age (years)             
  16-29 327 (13.2) 30 (12.6) 142 (12.0) 85 (13.8) 70 (15.8) <0.001 468 (23.6) 88 (20.8) 234 (22.8) 101 (30.0) 45 (23.0) <0.001
  30-39 799 (32.3) 54 (22.6) 370 (31.4) 231 (37.6) 144 (32.6)   476 (24.0) 82 (19.4) 302 (29.5) 67 (19.9) 25 (12.8)  
  40-49 686 (27.7) 48 (20.1) 344 (29.2) 168 (27.4) 126 (28.5)   487 (24.6) 103 (24.3) 263 (25.7) 77 (22.8) 44 (22.4)  
  50-59 445 (18.0) 57 (23.8) 217 (18.4) 102 (16.6) 69 (15.6)   359 (18.1) 86 (20.3) 157 (15.3) 58 (17.2) 58 (29.6)  
  ≥60 218 (8.8) 50 (20.9) 107 (9.1) 28 (4.6) 33 (7.5)   191 (9.6) 64 (15.1) 69 (6.7) 34 (10.1) 24 (12.2)  
  Mean (SD) 42.3 (11.7) 46.3 (14.4) 42.6 (11.4) 40.8 (10.5) 41.2 (11.8) <0.001 41.3 (13.0) 43.5 (14.3) 40.1 (11.8) 40.4 (13.6) 44.5 (13.5) <0.001
Smoking             
  Yes 1135 (45.9) 115 (48.1) 501 (42.5) 300 (48.9) 219 (49.5) 0.014 139 (7.0) 20 (4.7) 63 (6.1) 39 (11.6) 17 (8.7) 0.001
  No 1340 (54.1) 124 (51.9) 679 (57.5) 314 (51.1) 223 (50.5)   1842 (93.0) 403 (95.3) 962 (93.9) 298 (88.4) 179 (91.3)  
Drinking*             
  ≤7 1119 (45.2) 117 (49.0) 543 (46.0) 255 (41.5) 204 (46.2) 0.159 1642 (82.9) 367 (86.8) 845 (82.4) 269 (79.8) 161 (82.1) 0.074
  ≥8 1356 (54.8) 122 (51.0) 637 (54.0) 359 (58.5) 238 (53.8)   339 (17.1) 56 (13.2) 180 (17.6) 68 (20.2) 35 (17.9)  
Exercise             
  Yes 2266 (91.6) 215 (90.0) 1095 (92.8) 562 (91.5) 394 (89.1) 0.091 1754 (88.5) 378 (89.4) 916 (89.4) 294 (87.2) 116 (84.7) 0.222
  No 209 (8.4) 24 (10.0) 85 (7.2) 52 (8.5) 48 (10.9)   227 (11.5) 45 (10.6) 109 (10.6) 43 (12.8) 30 (15.3)  
DM             
  Yes 107 (4.3) 19 (7.9) 55 (4.7) 20 (3.3) 13 (2.9) 0.009 47 (2.4) 18 (4.3) 19 (1.9) 5 (1.5) 5 (2.6) 0.044§
  No 2368 (95.7) 220 (92.1) 1125 (95.3) 594 (96.7) 429 (97.1)   1934 (97.6) 405 (95.7) 1006 (98.1) 332 (98.5) 191 (97.4)  
Dyslipidemia             
  Yes 112 (4.5) 14 (5.9) 61 (5.2) 25 (4.1) 12 (2.7) 0.124 61 (3.1) 19 (4.5) 29 (2.8) 7 (2.1) 6 (3.1) 0.243
  No 2363 (95.5) 225 (94.1) 1119* (94.8) 589 (95.9) 430 (97.3)   1920 (96.9) 404 (95.5) 996 (97.2) 330 (97.9) 190 (96.9)  
Hypertension             
  Yes 284 (11.5) 41 (17.2) 141 (11.9) 62 (10.1) 40 (9.0) 0.009 169 (8.5) 43 (10.2) 71 (6.9) 25 (7.4) 30 (15.3) 0.001
  No 2191 (88.5) 198 (82.8) 1039 (88.1) 552 (89.9) 402 (91.0)   1812 (91.5) 380 (89.8) 954 (93.1) 312 (92.6) 166 (84.7)  
  1. SD, standard deviation; DM, diabetes mellitus; p, p-value. *problem alcohol drinking by AUDIT score, calculated by chi-square test, calculated by one-way ANOVA, §calculated by Fisher’s exact test.
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