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Table 1 Distribution of variables of interest and cognitive and physical function by sex

From: The impact of occupational experience on cognitive and physical functional status among older adults in a representative sample of Korean subjects

Variables Male Female
n (%) n (%)
Marital status     
  Married 1752 (91.2) 1354 (54.5)
  Divorced 32 (1.7) 38 (1.5)
  Widowed 133 (6.9) 1086 (43.7)
  Others 5 (0.3) 7 (0.3)
Educational level
  No education 267 (13.9) 1070 (43.0)
  Elementary 618 (32.2) 953 (38.3)
  Middle school 341 (17.7) 262 (10.5)
  High school 446 (23.2) 161 (6.5)
  College or more 249 (13.0) 40 (1.6)
Household income*
  1st quartile 496 (25.8) 844 (34.0)
  2nd quartile 636 (33.1) 781 (31.4)
  3rd quartile 495 (25.8) 532 (21.4)
  4th quartile 295 (15.3) 329 (13.2)
Current employment status
  Employed 690 (35.9) 336 (13.5)
  Retired 785 (40.8) 453 (18.2)
  Unemployed 447 (23.3) 1697 (68.3)
Principal job type during lifetime
  Non-manual work 468 (24.3) 135 (5.4)
  Manual work 1212 (63.1) 1653 (66.5)
  Other 246 (12.8) 699 (28.1)
Smoking
  Current smoker 638 (33.2) 91 (3.7)
  Past smoker 494 (25.7) 20 (0.8)
  Nonsmoker 790 (41.1) 2375 (95.5)
Drinking
  Yes 1059 (55.1) 277 (11.1)
  No 863 (44.9) 2209 (88.9)
Chronic disease
  Hypertension 627 (32.6) 993 (39.9)
  Diabetes mellitus 295 (15.3) 400 (16.1)
  Cardiac disorder 122 (6.3) 187 (7.5)
  Cerebral vascular disease 115 (6.0) 87 (3.5)
BMI¶
  Severe obesity 22 (1.1) 67 (2.7)
  Obesity 321 (16.7) 499 (20.1)
  Overweight 550 (28.6) 602 (24.2)
  Normal 881 (45.8) 1040 (41.8)
  Underweight 111 (5.8) 150 (6.0)
MMSE
  ≤17 176 (9.2) 593 (23.9)
  >17 1746 (90.8) 1893 (76.1)
  Mean (SD) 24.33 (5.80) 21.12 (6.83)
IADL
  ≤7 1846 (96.0) 2385 (95.9)
  >7 76 (4.0) 101 (4.1)
  Mean (SD) 0.78 (2.11) 0.81 (2.14)
ADL
  <1 1804 (93.9) 2307 (92.8)
  ≥1 118 (6.1) 179 (7.2)
  Mean (SD) 0.26 (1.18) 0.23 (1.01)
  1. *Household income: 1st quartile, below 3 million won; 2nd quartile, between 3 million and 12 million won; 3rd quartile, between 12 million and 30 million won; 4th quartile, more than 30 million won.
  2. ¶BMI(body mass index): severe obesity, BMI ≥30; obesity, 30 < BMI ≤ 25; overweight, 25 < BMI ≤ 23; normal,23 < BMI ≤ 18.5; underweight, BMI < 18.5.
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