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Table 3 General characteristics, health status, and health-related quality of life instruments (EQ-5D index) of older wage workers, according to sex

From: Factors associated with health-related quality of life in Korean older workers

  M F
N Mean ± S.D° P-value N Mean ± S.D° P-value
  712 0.956 ± 0.087   656 0.917 ± 0.124 0.000
Age       
 55–64 461 0.966 ± 0.082 0.000 396 0.936 ± 0.106 0.000
 65–74 220 0.940 ± 0.091 211 0.893 ± 0.139
 75- 31 0.925 ± 0.094 49 0.863 ± 0.152
Education       
<Elementary school 191 0.939 ± 0.093 0.000 418 0.899 ± 0.137 0.000
 Middle school 139 0.944 ± 0.119 124 0.953 ± 0.081
 High school 231 0.963 ± 0.069 85 0.937 ± 0.098
  > College 151 0.978 ± 0.055 29 0.958 ± 0.070
Household Income (quartile)
 1st (lowest) 106 0.919 ± 0.138 0.000 238 0.882 ± 0.147 0.000
 2nd 230 0.950 ± 0.083 194 0.928 ± 0.109
 3rd 186 0.968 ± 0.062 123 0.944 ± 0.101
 4th (highest) 190 0.972 ± 0.065 101 0.944 ± 0.095
Existence of spouse       
 Yes 676 0.956 ± 0.087 0.753 447 0.929 ± 0.112 0.001
 No 36 0.952 ± 0.084 209 0.890 ± 0.142
Drinking       
 none 137 0.957 ± 0.088 0.866 311 0.906 ± 0.132 0.082
 1 ~ 4/month 295 0.958 ± 0.093 304 0.928 ± 0.112
 2~/week 280 0.954 ± 0.079 41 0.924 ± 0.134
Smoking       
 non-smoker 128 0.969 ± 0.066 0.001 621 0.915 ± 0.125 0.416
 ex-smoker 378 0.961 ± 0.073 17 0.953 ± 0.065
 current smoker 206 0.938 ± 0.114 18 0.932 ± 0.127
BMI       
  < 18.5 22 0.968 ± 0.072 0.701 13 0.912 ± 0.114 0.612
 18.5–22.9 269 0.952 ± 0.084 224 0.922 ± 0.112
 23.0 ~ 24.9 197 0.958 ± 0.079 194 0.922 ± 0.129
 25.0–29.9 213 0.960 ± 0.097 200 0.905 ± 0.133
 30.0- 11 0.934 ± 0.107 25 0.924 ± 0.104
Hypertension       
 Yes 266 0.954 ± 0.079 0.684 257 0.903 ± 0.127 0.027
 No 446 0.957 ± 0.091 399 0.926 ± 0.120
Hyperlipidemia       
 Yes 105 0.954 ± 0.073 0.819 123 0.901 ± 0.151 0.179
 No 607 0.956 ± 0.089 533 0.921 ± 0.116
Cerebro-cardiovascular event (Stroke, Myocardial infarction, Angina)
 Yes 49 0.915 ± 0.110 0.008 41 0.848 ± 0.186 0.017
 No 663 0.959 ± 0.084 615 0.921 ± 0.117
Diabetes       
 Yes 108 0.940 ± 0.089 0.040 62 0.887 ± 0.161 0.122
 No 604 0.959 ± 0.086 594 0.920 ± 0.119
Osteoarthritis       
 Yes 59 0.920 ± 0.092 0.001 190 0.860 ± 0.160 0.000
 No 653 0.959 ± 0.085 466 0.940 ± 0.096
Musculoskeletal pain (Knee, Hip, Back)
 Yes 137 0.892 ± 0.132 0.000 297 0.858 ± 0.149 0.000
 No 575 0.971 ± 0.063 359 0.966 ± 0.065
Depression       
 Yes 13 0.941 ± 0.099 0.534 41 0.865 ± 0.145 0.005
 No 699 0.956 ± 0.086 615 0.920 ± 0.121
Stress       
 High 115 0.942 ± 0.080 0.049 149 0.878 ± 0.153 0.000
 Low 597 0.959 ± 0.088 507 0.928 ± 0.111
  1. SD standard deviation