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Table 2 Distribution of depressive symptoms

From: Association between serum vitamin D and depressive symptoms among female workers in the manufacturing industry

Variables   Number (%) CES-Da  
  <16 ≥16 p-valueb
  N (%) N (%)  
Total (N)     697 (66.1) 357 (33.9)  
Age (years) <30 765 (72.6) 486 (63.5) 279 (36.5) 0.004
  ≥30 289 (27.4) 211 (73.0) 78 (27.0)  
Shift work Yes 872 (82.7) 550 (63.1) 322 (36.9) <0.001
  No 182 (17.3) 147 (80.8) 35 (19.2)  
Marital status Married 196 (18.6) 147 (75.0) 49 (25.0) 0.004
  Unmarried 858 (81.4) 550 (64.1) 308 (35.9)  
Education level ≥college 341 (32.4) 253 (74.2) 88 (25.8) <0.001
  ≤high school 713 (67.6) 444 (62.3) 269 (37.7)  
Regular exercise ≥3 148 (14.0) 96 (64.9) 52 (35.1) 0.726
(times per week) <3 906 (86.0) 601 (66.3) 305 (33.7)  
Smoking habit Current 183 (17.4) 111 (60.7) 72 (39.3) 0.085
  Never/former 871 (82.6) 586 (67.3) 285 (32.7)  
Risky drinkingc Yes 166 (15.7) 111 (66.9) 55 (33.1) 0.827
  No 888 (84.3) 586 (66.0) 302 (34.0)  
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) <18.5 139 (13.1) 89 (64.0) 50 (36.0) 0.124
18.5 ~ 24.9 731 (69.4) 497 (68.0) 234 (32.0)  
  >25 184 (17.5) 111 (60.3) 73 (39.7)  
Vitamin D ≥10 333 (31.6) 246 (73.9) 87 (26.1) <0.001
(ng/mL) <10 721 (68.4) 451 (62.6) 270 (37.4)  
  1. athe Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale
  2. bcomparison by chi-squared test
  3. cRisky drinking: two or more times per week and five or more glasses each time