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Table 2 Comparison of initial variables according to the blood glucose level change over 7-years interval

From: Risks of borderline liver enzyme abnormalities to the incidence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus: a 7 year follow up study of workers

Variables Staying normal IFG or DM p-value*
(n = 508, 87.9 %) (n = 70, 12.1 %)
Demographic variables
 Sexa    0.534
  Male 452 (87.6) 64 (12.4)  
  Female 56 (90.3) 6 (9.7)  
 Age (year)b 38.3 ± 7.89 39.5 ± 6.63 0.155
 Work duration (year)b 8.7 ± 7.67 9.8 ± 6.97 0.252
 Occupationa    0.343
  Office work 87 (83.7) 17 (16.3)  
  Production work 350 (88.8) 44 (11.2)  
  Research work 71 (88.8) 9 (11.3)  
 Job positiona    0.925
  Executive 126 (88.1) 17 (11.9)  
  General 382 (87.8) 53 (12.2)  
Health related behaviorsa
 Alcohol drinking    0.311
  Healthy drinking 322 (89.0) 40 (11.0)  
  Unhealthy drinking 186 (86.1) 30 (13.9)  
 Smoking    0.304
  Non-smoker 258 (89.9) 29 (10.1)  
  Ex-smoker 63 (87.5) 9 (12.5)  
  Current smoker 187 (85.4) 32 (14.6)  
 Exercise per week    0.995
  0 185 (87.7) 26 (12.3)  
  1-2 214 (87.7) 30 (12.3)  
   ≥ 3 103 (88.0) 14 (12.0)  
Laboratory test resultsb
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.3 ± 2.83 24.9 ± 3.34 0.000
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 115.0 ± 11.07 120.2 ± 11.87 0.000
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 70.6 ± 7.74 73.6 ± 7.12 0.002
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.3 ± 1.33 14.5 ± 1.24 0.118
 AST (IU/L) 24.0 ± 8.44 26.2 ± 11.77 0.125
 ALT (IU/L) 26.0 ± 17.86 32.0 ± 19.29 0.009
 γ-GTP (IU/L) 34.8 ± 27.06 44.3 ± 28.78 0.006
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 188.2 ± 33.82 194.0 ± 32.52 0.189
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 130.0 ± 90.60 156.8 ± 137.36 0.038
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 56.1 ± 12.58 52.1 ± 10.47 0.015
  1. IFG impaired fasting glucose, DM diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, γ-GTP Gamma-glutamyltransferase, HDL High density lipoprotein
  2. *Chi-square test or ANOVA test
  3. aN (%)
  4. bMean ± SD