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Table 3 Relative risks to the incidence of IFG or DM according to initial liver enzyme levels

From: Risks of borderline liver enzyme abnormalities to the incidence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus: a 7 year follow up study of workers

Levels of initial liver enzyme Blood glucose level Relative Risk p-value*
Staying normal IFG or DM
AST (IU/L)     0.305
 Aa 487 (88.2) 65 (11.8) 1  
 Bb 12 (80.0) 3 (20.0) 1.69  
 Rc 9 (81.8) 2 (18.2) 1.54  
ALT (IU/L)     0.011
 A 418 (90.3) 45 (9.7) 1  
 B 35 (70.0) 15 (30.0) 3.09  
 R 55 (84.6) 10 (15.4) 1.59  
γ-GTP (IU/L)     0.000
 A 459 (90.2) 50 (9.8) 1  
 B 19 (65.5) 10 (34.5) 3.52  
 R 30 (75.0) 10 (25.0) 2.55  
Number of abnormal liver enzymes     0.000
 0 396 (91.2) 38 (8.8) 1  
 1 72 (80.0) 18 (20.0) 2.27  
 2 32 (76.2) 10 (23.8) 2.70  
 3 8 (66.7) 4 (33.3) 3.78  
  1. IFG impaired fasting glucose, DM diabetes mellitus, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, γ-GTP gamma-glutamyltransferase
  2. aA was defined as ≤40 IU/L for AST, ≤35 IU/L for ALT, or ≤63 IU/L in males or ≤35 IU/L in females for γ-GTP
  3. bB was defined as 41–50 IU/L for AST, 36–45 IU/L for ALT, and 64–77 IU/L in males or 36–45 IU/L in females for γ-GTP
  4. cR was defined as ≥51 IU/L for AST, ≥46 IU/L for ALT, and ≥78 IU/L in males or ≥46 IU/L in females for γ-GTP
  5. *Chi-square test