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Table 2 Associations between general characteristics and prevalence of depressive symptoms by sex in older Koreans

From: Employment and occupation effects on late-life depressive symptoms among older Koreans: a cross-sectional population survey

Total N = 7,320 Prevalence of depressive symptoms
  Male Female
  Total % p-valuea Total % p-valuea
  3178    4142   
Age (years)
 55–64 1376 11.6 0.582 1771 18.6 0.450
  ≥ 65 1802 10.9   2371 19.8  
Educational status
  ≤ Primary School 1175 13.8 0.009 2850 19.9 0.507
 Middle school 593 11.2   560 17.4  
 High school 885 10.1   561 18.4  
  ≥ College 525 7.0   171 15.9  
Household income
 1Q (High) 630 11.8 0.024 660 15.1 < 0.001
 2Q 670 8.5   717 18.5  
 3Q 872 10.2   1070 16.4  
 4Q (Low) 1006 14.1   1695 23.0  
Family members
 1 person 187 19.2 0.003 771 23.0 0.018
  ≥ 2 persons 2991 10.8   3371 18.5  
General health status
 Excellent/Good 1063 6.3 < 0.001 959 12.0 < 0.001
 Fair/Bad 2115 13.7   3183 21.4  
Exercise Capacity
 Yes (Can) 3148 111.1 0.025 4055 18.7 < 0.001
 No (Cannot) 30 25.6   87 45.6  
Daily life Capacity
 Yes (Can) 3126 10.9 < 0.001 4002 18.4 < 0.001
 No (Cannot) 52 34.3   140 40.5  
Sleep duration
  ≤ 5 h 573 15.8 0.003 1188 23.7 < 0.001
 6–8 h 2314 9.8   2647 17.0  
  ≥ 9 h 291 14.4   307 20.2  
Drinking
  < 2.5 Times 1987 11.5 0.763 3949 19.3 0.698
  ≥ 2.5 Times 1191 11.0   193 17.9  
Smoking
 Current smoking 911 12.9 0.181 136 29.2 0.230
 Ex smoking 1784 10.1   153 22.7  
 Non-smoking 483 12.0   3853 18.7  
  1. a χ 2 test