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Table 2 Prevalence of socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics for being overweight or obese based on BMI and PBF by gender

From: Long working hours and overweight and obesity in working adults

  BMI (kg/m2) PBF (%)
  Women Men Women Men
Variable Controls* Cases+ Controls* Cases+ Controls* Cases+ Controls* Cases+
  (N = 207) (N = 204) (N = 81) (N = 219) (N = 207) (N = 204) (N = 49) (N = 251)
Age group         
 40–49 126 (59.4) 94 (47.2) 34 (42) 107 (42) 132 (63.8) 88 (43.1) 25 (51) 116 (46.2)
 50–59 69 (32.6) 79 (39.7) 31 (38.3) 80 (38.3) 67 (32.4) 81 (39.7) 17 (34.7) 94 (37.5)
  ≥ 60 17 (8) 26 (13.1) 16 (19.8) 32 (19.8) 8 (3.9) 35 (17.2) 7 (14.3) 41 (16.3)
  p = 0.01 p = 0.21 p < 0.0001 p = 0.55
Marital status         
 Unmarried 5 (2.4) 5 (2.6) 3 (3.8) 5 (2.3) 5 (2.5) 5 (2.5) 1 (2) 7 (2.9)
 Married 191 (92.3) 176 (90.7) 74 (92.5) 203 (94.4) 187 (92.6) 180 (90.5) 45 (91.8) 232 (94.3)
 Divorced/Widow/Widower 11 (5.3) 13 (6.7) 3 (3.8) 7 (3.3) 10 (5) 14 (7) 3 (6.1) 7 (2.9)
  p = 0.67 p = 0.79 p = 0.48 p = 0.29
Educational level         
 Low 89 (42) 111 (55.8) 36 (44.4) 93 (42.5) 89 (43) 111 (54.4) 23 (46.9) 106 (42.2)
 Middle 110 (51.9) 81 (40.7) 40 (49.4) 96 (43.8) 104 (50.2) 87 (42.7) 22 (44.9) 114 (45.4)
 High 13 (6.1) 7 (3.5) 5 (6.2) 30 (13.7) 14 (6.8) 6 (2.9) 4 (8.2) 31 (12.4)
  p = 0.005 p = 0.28   p = 0.01 p = 0.40
Income (US$/Month)         
  < 2,000 12 (6.6) 9 (5.1) 4 (5) 14 (6.9) 11 (6.1) 10 (5.6) 2 (4.1) 16 (6.8)
 2,000-3,000 8 (4.4) 10 (5.6) 5 (6.3) 12 (5.9) 7 (3.9) 11 (6.2) 2 (4.1) 15 (6.4)
  ≥ 3,000 162 (89) 159 (89.3) 71 (88.8) 178 (87.3) 163 (90.1) 158 (88.3) 45 (91.8) 204 (86.8)
  p = 0.73 p = 0.63 p = 0.81 p = 0.35
Smoking         
 Non-smoker 207 (97.6) 189 (95) 25 (30.9) 61 (27.9) 202 (97.6) 194 (95.1) 15 (30.6) 71 (28.3)
 Smoker 5 (2.4) 10 (5) 56 (69.1) 158 (72.2) 5 (2.4) 10 (4.9) 34 (69.4) 180 (71.7)
  p = 0.24 p = 0.71 p = 0.28 p = 0.88
Alcohol consumption         
 Non-drinking 151 (71.2) 133 (66.8) 14 (17.3) 40 (18.3) 146 (70.5) 138 (67.7) 10 (20.4) 44 (17.5)
 Drinking 61 (28.8) 66 (33.2) 67 (82.7) 179 (81.7) 61 (29.5) 66 (32.4) 39 (79.6) 207 (82.5)
  p = 0.39   p = 0.98 p = 0.60 p = 0.78
Working hours         
  < 9 h/day 193 (93.7) 169 (86.7) 47 (58.8) 146 (67.6) 189 (93.6) 173 (86.9) 29 (60.4) 164 (66.1)
  ≥ 9 h/day 13 (6.3) 26 (13.3) 33 (41.3) 70 (32.4) 13 (6.4) 26 (13.1) 19 (39.6) 84 (33.9)
  p = 0.03 p = 0.20 p = 0.04 p = 0.55
Occupational sitting time         
  < 4 h/day 152 (71.7) 132 (66.3) 28 (34.6) 74 (33.8) 149 (72) 135 (66.2) 14 (28.6) 88 (35.1)
  ≥ 4 h/day 60 (28.3) 67 (33.7) 53 (65.4) 145 (66.2) 58 (28) 69 (33.8) 35 (71.4) 163 (64.9)
  p = 0.28 p = 1.00 p = 0.24 p = 0.48
Regular exercise         
 No 89 (42.4) 73 (36.9) 34 (42.5) 84 (38.7) 79 (38.5) 83 (40.9) 19 (38.8) 99 (39.9)
 Yes 121 (57.6) 125 (63.1) 46 (57.5) 133 (61.3) 126 (61.5) 120 (59.1) 30 (61.2) 149 (60.1)
  p = 0.30 p = 0.65 p = 0.70 p = 1.00
Sleeping hours         
  > 9 h/day 135 (65.5) 146 (75.7) 59 (72.8) 157 (72) 132 (65.4) 149 (75.6) 35 (71.4) 181 (72.4)
    9 h/day 71 (34.5) 47 (24.4) 22 (27.2) 61 (28) 70 (34.7) 48 (24.4) 14 (28.6) 69 (27.6)
  p = 0.04 p = 1.00 p = 0.03 p = 1.00
  1. *Controls. BMI: Body mass index (Cut-off limits of overweight: BMI (kg/m2) <25, PBF: Percent body fat (Cut-off limits of overweight: men’s BF (%) < 20; women’s BF (%) < 30)
  2. +Cases. BMI: Body mass index (Cut-off limits of overweight: BMI (kg/m2) ≥25, PBF: Percent body fat (Cut-off limits of overweight: men’s BF (%) ≥ 20; women’s BF (%) ≥ 3
  3. Working hours, occupational sitting time and Sleeping time were dichotomized at the median