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Table 3 Odds ratio and 95 % Confidence intervals of overweight or obese based on BMI and PBF by socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics for women and men

From: Long working hours and overweight and obesity in working adults

  BMI (kg/m2) PBF (%)
  Women Men Women Men
Variable Crude OR Adjusted OR* Crude OR Adjusted OR* Crude OR Adjusted OR* Crude OR Adjusted OR*
  (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Socio-demographic factors         
 Age group         
  40–49 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  50–59 1.54 1.47 0.82 0.66 1.81 1.96 1.19 1.41
  (1.01–2.33) (0.89–2.42) (0.47–1.45) (0.34–1.28) (1.19–2.76) (1.18–3.24) (0.61–2.34) (0.66–3.02)
  60+ 2.05 2.49 0.64 0.48 6.56 7.37 1.26 1.65
  (1.05–4.00) (1.16–5.33) (0.31–1.30) (0.21–1.11) (2.91–14.81) (3.06–17.76) (0.51–3.14) (0.57–4.76)
 Marital status         
  Unmarried 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Married 0.92 0.74 1.65 1.65 0.96 1.41 0.74 0.94
  (0.26–3.24) (0.17–3.18) (0.38–7.06) (0.35–7.71) (0.27–3.38) (0.30–6.65) (0.09–6.13) (0.11–8.35)
  Divorced, Widow/Widower 1.18 0.51 1.4 0.83 1.4 0.75 0.33 0.14
  (0.27–5.18) (0.09–2.89) (0.20–10.03) (0.09–7.49) (0.32–6.16) (0.12–4.7) (0.03–4.04) (0.01–2.09)
 Educational level         
  Low 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Middle 0.59 0.72 0.93 0.87 0.67 0.87 1.12 1.29
  (0.40–0.88) (0.45–1.16) (0.55–1.58) (0.48–1.59) (0.45–1.00) (0.54–1.41) (0.59–2.14) (0.64–2.61)
  High 0.43 0.20 2.32 2.60 0.34 0.21 1.68 1.80
  (0.17–1.13) (0.05–0.78) (0.84–6.45) (0.81–8.36) (0.13–0.93) (0.05–0.85) (0.54–5.23) (0.54–6.02)
Income (US$/Month)         
  < 2,000 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 2,000–3,000 1.67 1.72 0.69 0.42 1.73 1.63 0.94 0.99
  (0.47–5.93) (0.41–7.31) (0.15–3.15) (0.08–2.33) (0.48–6.2) (0.37–7.20) (0.12–7.52) (0.11–9.07)
  ≥ 3,000 1.31 1.29 0.72 0.40 1.07 0.82 0.57 0.41
  (0.54–3.19) (0.48–3.48) (0.23–2.25) (0.10–1.57) (0.44–2.58) (0.30–2.24) (0.13–2.55) (0.08–2.03)
Lifestyle factors         
 Smoking         
  Non-smoker 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Smoker 2.19 1.87 1.16 1.47 2.08 1.86 1.12 1.25
  (0.74–6.52) (0.55–6.39) (0.66–2.02) (0.77–2.81) (0.70–6.20) (0.54–6.43) (0.57–2.18) (0.58–2.67)
 Alcohol consumption         
  Non-drinking 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Drinking 1.23 1.39 0.94 0.91 1.15 1.44 1.21 1.70
  (0.81–1.87) (0.85–2.25) (0.48–1.83) (0.43–1.96) (0.75–1.74) (0.88–2.37) (0.56–2.60) (0.73–3.93)
 Working hours         
   < 9 h/day 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
   ≥ 9 h/day 2.28 2.42 0.68 0.46 2.19 2.50 0.78 0.63
  (1.14–4.59) (1.05–5.57) (0.40–1.16) (0.24–0.87) (1.09–4.39) (1.07–5.79) (0.41–1.48) (0.30–1.32)
Occupational sitting time         
  < 4 h/day 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  ≥ 4 h/day 1.29 0.96 1.04 1.16 1.26 0.98 0.85 0.91
  (0.85–1.96) (0.53–1.76) (0.61–1.77) (0.63–2.12) (0.78–2.06) (0.53–1.83) (0.46–1.57) (0.45–1.85)
 Regular exercise         
  No 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  Yes 1.26 1.04 1.17 1.31 0.91 0.81 0.95 0.89
  (0.85–1.88) (0.65–1.66) (0.70–1.97) (0.74–2.33) (0.61–1.35) (0.5–1.32) (0.51–1.79) (0.46–1.74)
 Sleeping hours         
   > 9 h/day 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
     9 h/day 0.61 0.66 1.04 1.05 0.61 0.65 0.95 0.79
  (0.40–0.95) (0.40–1.09) (0.59–1.85) (0.56–1.99) (0.39–0.94) (0.39–1.10) (0.48–1.88) (0.39–1.63)
  1. *Adjusted for confounding factors except for the targeted variable itself. The confounding factors involve age, educational level, smoking, alcohol consumption, working hours, daily occupational sitting time, and sleeping hours (h/day)