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Table 1 The 16 scenarios used to represent real-life equimolar mix of nitrous oxide (N2O)/oxygen (O2) [EMONO] administration

From: Modelling levels of nitrous oxide exposure for healthcare professionals during EMONO usage

Scenario Patient Room size (m2) Room ventilation mode Administration mode EMONO usage TWA-8 h ppm (OEL = 25–100)
#1 Dentistry Adult 15 Controlled mechanical ventilation system (5 vol/h) Without on-demand valve (20 min adm. + 40 min washouta) ×2 19.0
#2 Dentistry (59 min adm. + 40 min washouta) ×1 28.7
#3 Dentistry Window (20 min adm. + 40 min washouta) ×2 20.4
#4 Dentistry (59 min adm. + 40 min washouta) ×1 65.6
#5 Dermatology Adult 10 Single door On-demand valve (30 min adm. + 30 min washouta) ×2 57.2
#6 Emergency room Child (+ parent) 10 Double door Without on-demand valve (15 min adm. + 20 min washouta) ×3 8.7
#7 Emergency room (59 min adm. + 20 min washouta) ×3 129.6
#8 Emergency room On-demand valve (15 min adm. + 20 min washouta) ×3 4.2
#9 Emergency room (59 min adm. + 20 min washouta) ×3 64.2
#10 Emergency room Adult 10 Double door Without on-demand valve (15 min adm. + 20 min washouta) ×3 48.3
#11 Emergency room (59 min adm. + 20 min washouta) ×3 371.4
#12 Emergency room On-demand valve (15 min adm. + 20 min washouta) ×3 21.9
#13 Emergency room (59 min adm. + 20 min washouta) ×3 175.5
#14 Obstetrics Adult 15 Extraction system (15 vol/h) On-demand valve Intermittent inhalationb (59 min adm. + 40 min washouta) ×1 2.0
#15 Radiology Adult 15 Single door On-demand valve (10 min adm. + 30 min washouta) ×1 4.6
#16 Radiology (30 min adm. + 30 min washouta) ×1 23.7
  1. Each scenario is defined by an associated real-life situation (e.g., dentistry, emergency room, etc.), the patient type (adult or child), the room size, the room ventilation mode (natural ventilation such as window or door opening, or mechanical ventilation system with a change volume rate of 5 vol/h or 15 vol/h), the administration mode (with or without on-demand valve), and the EMONO usage (i.e., administration duration plus computed wash-out time, and number of successive usages). The TWA-8 h ppm values computed at the HCP’s mouth are also presented. Bold values are below the most restrictive OEL of 25 TWA-8 h ppm. Note that the computed TWA-8 h ppm values are above the less restrictive OEL (100 ppm) for three scenarios only. aSee the text for a definition of the wash-out time. bIntermittent inhalation corresponds to successive periods of 3 min with EMONO administration and 3 min without EMONO administration