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Table 2 Collaboration between Arab countries and non-Arab countries in pharmaceutical wastewater research

From: Contribution of Arab countries to pharmaceutical wastewater literature: a bibliometric and comparative analysis of research output

Region/Countrya No. of Documents (%)
Western Europe 54(30.2)*
   France 20(11.2)
   Spain 12(6.7)
   Germany 8(4.5)
   Sweden 3(1.7)
   Netherlands 3(1.7)
   Italy 3(1.7)
   Greece 2(1.1)
   Belgium 2(1.1)
   Portugal 1(0.6)
   Finland 1(0.6)
   Norway 1(0.6)
   United Kingdom 1(0.6)
   Ireland 1(0.6)
Asiatic Region 29(16.2)*
   India 9(5.0)
   South Korea 6(3.4)
   Malaysia 5(2.8)
   Pakistan 5(2.8)
   China 3(1.7)
   Japan 3(1.7)
   Singapore 1(0.6)
   Sri Lanka 1(0.6)
   Bangladesh 1(0.6)
Region/Country  
North America 15(8.4)*
   United States 12(6.7)
   Canada 5(2.8)
Eastern Europe 3(1.7)*
   Romania 2(1.1)
   Czech Republic 1(0.6)
Middle East 3(1.7)*
   Israel 2(1.1)
   Iran 1(0.6)
Latin America 2(1.1)*
   Costa Rica 1(0.6)
   Brazil 1(0.6)
Pacific Region 1(0.6)*
   Australia 1(0.6)
Pacific Region 1(0.6)*
   Australia 1(0.6)
Arab-Arab 13(7.3)
   Arab-Arab 13(7.3)
  1. aThe study identified 87(48.6 %)documents with 32 countries in Arab/non-Arab country collaborations
  2. *Total exceeds 48.6 % as data are overlapping due to multi-country collaboration