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Table 5 Epidemiological studies investigating the association of occupational solvent exposure and IgAN

From: IgA nephropathy in a laboratory worker that progressed to end-stage renal disease: a case report

Author(s) (year) Study design Subjects Outcome Period Population Total GNa/IgAN Resultse
Porro et al. [10] (1992) case–control study 60 biopsy-proven chronic GNa patients in a University hospital in Italy (including 27 IgAN patients) onset of IgAN 1987–1990 60/27 (reference:120) ·An increased risk of IgAN was found for occupational solvent exposure group.
·RRb of IgAN for occupational solvent exposure ; 4.25 (1.18–16.36)
Stengel et al. [11] (1995) case–control study 298 biopsy-proven GNa patients in 5 hospitals in Paris (including 116 IgAN patients) aggravation of IgAN to CRF 1989–1991 298/116 (reference:298) ·Among males, clear association was observed between CRF and high exposure to solvents for IgAN; ORc = 3.5 (1.0–11.8), P < 0.05.
·The OR increased with duration of exposure; OR = 5.6 (1.3–24.1) for ≥10 years exposure, (P = 0.02).
·No relationship was observed for cases without CRF.
Wakai et al. [29] (1999) case–control study 94 biopsy-proven IgAN patients in medical centers in Japan onset of IgAN 1997–1999 94/94 (reference:185) · Work-related exposure to organic solvents was found not to be associated with the risk for IgAN; OR = 0.55 (0.27–1.12), (P < 0.10)
Jacob et al. [12] (2007) retrospective cohort study 338 non-ESRD patients in Paris (including 194 IgAN patients with biopsy confirm) aggravation of IgAN to ESRD 2002–2004 338/194 ·Solvent exposure was associated with faster progression of IgAN to ESRD, HRd for IgAN is 2.6 (1.3–5.5) for high exposure versus none (p < 0.05).
·There was a trend increasing HR with exposure duration before and its persistence after diagnosis.
Jacob et al. [13] (2007) retrospective cohort study 269 patients with non-ESRD and biopsy-proven primary GNa diagnosis between 1994 and 2001 in Paris and suburbs (including 167 IgAN patients) aggravation of IgAN to ESRD 2002–2004 269/167 ·This study showed the potential role of toluene and xylene, some petroleum products, ketones and possibly dichloromethane in the progression of GNa to ESRD.
  1. aGN, Glomerulonephritis; bRR, Relative Risk; cOR, Odds Ratio; dHR, Hazard Ratio; e(··), 95 % Confidence Interval