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Table 1 General and occupational characteristics of the individuals according to perceived discrimination

From: The association between perceived discrimination and depression/anxiety disorders among Korean workers: analysis of the third Korean Working Conditions Survey

  Male (N = 22,020) Female (N = 13,510)
  Perceived discrimination   Perceived discrimination
N (%) No (%) Yes (%) N (%) No (%) Yes (%)
General characteristics
Age (years)
 20–29 2331 (11.6) 2050 (87.9) 281 (12.1)* 2767 (20.5) 2410 (87.1) 357 (12.9)
 30–39 6456 (32.2) 5749 (89.0) 707 (11.0) 4123 (30.5) 3556 (86.2) 567 (13.8)
 40–49 5963 (29.8) 5335 (89.5) 628 (10.5) 4006 (29.7) 3472 (86.7) 534 (13.3)
 50–59 3718 (18.6) 3258 (87.6) 460 (12.4) 1806 (13.4) 1572 (87.1) 234 (12.9)
 ≥ 60 1552 (7.8) 1345 (86.7) 207 (13.3) 808 (6.0) 697 (86.3) 111 (13.7)
Education
 Middle school or below 1688 (8.4) 1432 (84.8) 256 (15.2)* 1520 (11.3) 1311 (86.2) 210 (13.8)*
 High school 7214 (36.0) 6373 (88.3) 841 (11.7) 4941 (36.6) 4336 (87.8) 605 (12.2)
 Collegea 3234 (16.2) 2812 (87.0) 422 (13.0) 2873 (21.3) 2473 (86.1) 400 (13.9)
 University or above 7884 (39.4) 7120 (90.3) 764 (9.7) 4176 (30.9) 3587 (85.9) 588 (14.1)
Alcohol drinking
 No 2751 (13.7) 2414 (87.7) 337 (12.3) 4605 (34.1) 4066 (88.3) 539 (11.7)*
 Yes 17,269 (86.3) 15,323 (88.7) 1946 (11.3) 8905 (65.9) 7642 (85.8) 1263 (14.2)
Smoking
 Nonsmoker 5875 (29.3) 5196 (88.4) 679 (11.6) 12,304 (91.1) 10,755 (87.4) 1549 (12.6)*
 Ex-smoker 3380 (16.9) 3009 (89.0) 371 (11.0) 407 (3.0) 343 (84.3) 64 (15.7)
 Current smoker 10,765 (53.8) 9532 (88.5) 1233 (11.5) 799 (5.9) 609 (76.3) 190 (23.8)
Occupational characteristics
Employment status
 Regular worker 16,983 (84.8) 15,188 (89.4) 1795 (10.6)* 10,454 (77.4) 9095 (87.0) 1359 (13.0)
 Temporary worker 1933 (9.7) 1691 (87.5) 242 (12.5) 2421 (17.9) 2062 (85.2) 359 (14.8)
 Day laborer 1104 (5.5) 858 (77.7) 246 (22.3) 635 (4.7) 551 (86.8) 84 (13.2)
Occupation type
 Management/professional 3835 (19.2) 3429 (89.4) 406 (10.6)* 3424 (25.3) 2941 (85.9) 483 (14.1)*
 Office work 5104 (25.5) 4580 (89.7) 524 (10.3) 3252 (24.1) 2790 (85.8) 462 (14.2)
 Service/sales 2444 (12.2) 2202 (90.1) 242 (9.9) 4040 (29.9) 3569 (88.3) 471 (11.7)
 Technical 6009 (30.0) 5343 (88.9) 666 (11.1) 948 (7.0) 824 (86.9) 124 (13.1)
 Simple labor 2628 (13.1) 2184 (83.1) 444 (16.9) 1846 (13.7) 1583 (85.8) 263 (14.2)
Income (/10,000/month)
 < 150 2809 (14.0) 2401 (85.5) 408 (14.5)* 6064 (44.9) 5358 (88.4) 706 (11.6)*
 150–199 3626 (18.1) 3110 (85.8) 516 (14.2) 3435 (25.4) 2977 (86.7) 458 (13.3)
 200–299 7078 (35.4) 6311 (89.2) 767 (10.8) 2634 (19.5) 2231 (84.7) 403 (15.3)
 ≥ 300 6508 (32.5) 5916 (90.9) 592 (9.1) 1377 (10.2) 1142 (82.9) 235 (17.1)
Number of employees
 < 5 3342 (16.7) 3023 (90.5) 319 (9.5)* 3923 (29.0) 3560 (90.7) 363 (9.3)*
 5–49 10,557 (52.7) 9283 (87.9) 1274 (12.1) 7045 (52.1) 6044 (85.8) 1001 (14.2)
 50–299 4067 (20.3) 3579 (88.0) 488 (12.0) 1984 (14.7) 1653 (83.3) 331 (16.7)
 ≥ 300 2054 (10.3) 1852 (90.2) 202 (9.8) 558 (4.1) 450 (80.6) 108 (19.4)
Tenure (years)
 < 2 6007 (30.0) 5256 (87.5) 751 (12.5)* 6405 (47.4) 5579 (87.1) 826 (12.9)
 2–4 4840 (24.2) 4257 (88.0) 583 (12.0) 4037 (29.9) 3474 (86.1) 563 (13.9)
 5–9 4391 (21.9) 3928 (89.5) 463 (10.5) 1991 (14.7) 1719 (86.3) 272 (13.7)
 ≥ 10 4782 (23.9) 4296 (89.8) 486 (10.2) 1077 (8.0) 935 (86.8) 142 (13.2)
Working hours (/week)
 ≤ 40 7285 (36.4) 6616 (90.8) 669 (9.2)* 6139 (45.4) 5355 (87.2) 784 (12.8)*
 41–48 4403 (22.0) 3921 (89.1) 482 (10.9) 3111 (23.0) 2724 (87.6) 387 (12.4)
 49–60 6248 (31.2) 5409 (86.6) 839 (13.4) 3327 (24.6) 2843 (85.4) 484 (14.6)
 > 60 2084 (10.4) 1792 (86.0) 292 (14.0) 933 (6.9) 786 (84.3) 147 (15.7)
Shift work
 No 17,673 (88.3) 15,697 (88.8) 1976 (11.2)* 12,688 (93.9) 11,047 (87.1) 1641 (12.9)*
 Yes 2347 (11.7) 2040 (86.9) 307 (13.1) 822 (6.1) 660 (80.3) 162 (19.7)
  1. *p < 0.05 using the chi-square test
  2. aa 2–3-year college degree