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Table 3 Comparison of presenteeism on workplace psychosocial factors stratified with gender

From: The association between Korean workers’ presenteeism and psychosocial factors within workplaces

Characteristics Presenteeism n (%)
Male Female
Yes No P-value Yes No P-value
Experience of age discrimination no 3,305 (19.4) 13,766 (80.6) <0.001 2,626 (24.0) 8,293 (76.0) <0.001
yes 234 (31.5) 508 (68.5) 183 (35.5) 332 (64.5)
Educational background discrimination no 3,261 (19.5) 13,460 (80.5) <0.001 2,579 (24.2) 8,085 (75.8) <0.001
yes 277 (25.4) 814 (74.6) 230 (29.9) 540 (70.1)
Regional discriminatio no 3,417 (19.6) 13,995 (80.4) <0.001 2,726 (24.4) 8,439 (75.6) <0.001
yes 121 (30.3) 279 (69.8) 83 (30.9) 186 (69.1)
Sexual discrimination no 3,451 (19.7) 14,024 (80.3) 0.003 2,663 (24.1) 8,385 (75.9) <0.001
yes 88 (26.0) 250 (74.0) 146 (37.8) 240 (62.2)
Employment type discrimination no 3,288 (19.3) 13,772 (80.7) <0.001 2,597 (23.8) 8,332 (76.2) <0.001
yes 251 (33.3) 502 (66.7) 212 (42.0) 293 (58.0)
Physical violence no 3,490 (19.7) 14,182 (80.3) <0.001 2,778 (24.4) 8,584 (75.6) <0.001
yes 48 (34.3) 92 (65.7) 31 (43.7) 40 (56.3)
Bullying, harassment no 3,520 (19.8) 14,234 (80.2) 0.017 2,798 (24.6) 8,597 (75.4) 0.356
yes 19 (32.2) 40 (67.8) 11 (28.2) 28 (71.8)
Sexual harassment no 3,529 (19.8) 14,253 (80.2) 0.072 2,764 (24.4) 8,584 (75.6) <0.001
yes 10 (32.3) 21 (67.7) 45 (52.3) 41 (47.7)
Job insecurity no 3,356 (19.6) 13,770 (80.4) <0.001 2,695 (24.5) 8,309 (75.5) 0.185
yes 182 (26.5) 504 (73.5) 114 (26.5) 316 (73.5)
Work-life balance good 2,282 (18.0) 10,417 (82.0) <0.001 1,989 (22.7) 6,787 (77.3) <0.001
poor 1,257 (24.6) 3,857 (75.4) 820 (30.9) 1,838 (69.1)
Job satisfaction high 2,100 (16.3) 10,809 (83.7) <0.001 1,904 (21.7) 6,886 (78.3) <0.001
low 1,438 (29.3) 3,465 (70.7) 905 (34.2) 1,739 (65.8)
Colleagues support high 2,934 (19.3) 12,276 (80.7) <0.001 2,425 (25.5) 7,103 (74.5) 0.005
low 537 (25.6) 1,563 (74.4) 287 (22.1) 1,011 (77.9)
Supervisors support high 2,837 (19.3) 11,882 (80.7) <0.001 2,349 (25.2) 6,957 (74.8) 0.004
low 660 (23.0) 2,211 (77.0) 423 (22.4) 1,469 (77.6)
Job stress low 597 (12.5) 4,165 (87.5) <0.001 604 (17.8) 2,788 (82.2) <0.001
high 2,941 (22.5) 10,109 (77.5) 2,205 (27.4) 5,837 (72.6)
Emotional labor no 964 (14.8) 5,530 (85.2) <0.001 817 (21.4) 2,992 (78.6) <0.001
yes 2,574 (22.7) 8,744 (77.3) 1,992 (26.1) 5,633 (73.9)
Work intensity low 1,294 (16.2) 6,670 (83.8) <0.001 1,241 (22.5) 4,269 (77.5) <0.001
high 2,245 (22.8) 7,604 (77.2) 1,568 (26.5) 4,356 (73.5)
Work autonomy high 1,721 (19.8) 6,961 (80.2) 0.455 1,150 (23.5) 3,749 (76.5) 0.010
low 1,817 (19.9) ,7313 (80.1) 1,659 (25.4) 4,876 (74.6)
Job strain Low strain 828 (16.5) 4,189 (83.5) <0.001 640 (22.3) 2,225 (77.7) <0.001
Passive group 865 (17.9) 3,972 (82.1) 920 (24.1) 2,892 (75.9)
Active group 893 (24.4) 2,772 (75.6) 510 (25.1) 1,524 (74.9)
High strain 952 (22.2) 3,341 (77.8) 739 (27.1) 1,984 (72.9)