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Table 3 Characteristics by hearing impairment in male subjects

From: The association between long working hours and hearing impairment in noise unexposed workers: data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)

Variables Low frequency hearing threshold High frequency hearing threshold
Normala Impaireda Rateb p-valuec Normala Impaireda Rateb p-valuec
Total 1943952 86909 4.3 %   1450702 580160 28.6 %  
Age
 25–34 601667 8921 1.5 % 0.003 536836 73752 12.1 % < 0.001
 35–44 767129 24164 3.1 %   639708 151585 19.2 %  
 45–54 433876 35966 7.7 %   228438 241405 51.4 %
 55–64 141281 17857 11.2 %   45720 113418 71.3 %
BMI (kg/m2)
 Underweight 20560 0 0.0 % 0.594 14802 5759 28.0 % 0.987
 Normal 1132208 58595 4.9 %   853128 337675 28.4 %  
 Obese 791184 28314 3.5 %   582771 236726 28.9 %
Education
  ≤ Middle school 138168 13016 8.6 % 0.069 76552 74632 49.4 % < 0.001
 High school 684015 41593 5.7 %   449823 275785 38.0 %  
  ≥ College 1121769 32300 2.8 %   924326 229743 19.9 %
Marital status
 Never married 330788 4487 1.3 % 0.285 293642 41634 12.4 % 0.001
 Married 1571384 82422 5.0 %   1137760 516046 31.2 %  
 Others 41780 0 0.0 %   19300 22480 53.8 %
Household income
 Low 72438 1156 1.6 % 0.868 41672 31921 43.4 % 0.503
 Mid-low 591940 29504 4.7 %   434735 186708 30.0 %  
 Mid-high 690088 30844 4.3 %   522569 198364 27.5 %
 High 589487 25406 4.1 %   451726 163166 26.5 %
Smoking
 Non-smoker 464148 13948 2.9 % 0.391 373600 104496 21.9 % 0.085
 Ex-smoker 535904 34937 6.1 %   380557 190284 33.3 %  
 Current smoker 943901 38024 3.9 %   696544 285380 29.1 %
Alcohol
 None 200508 12108 5.7 % 0.382 141176 71441 33.6 % 0.608
 Light drinker 1246716 43362 3.4 %   933381 356697 27.6 %  
 Heavy drinker 496727 31440 6.0 %   376145 152022 28.8 %
Exercise
 No 1539723 63025 3.9 % 0.428 1173529 429219 26.8 % 0.081
 Yes 404229 23884 5.6 %   277173 150940 35.3 %  
Occupation
 Non-manual 1356037 45141 3.2 % 0.060 1086389 314789 22.5 % < 0.001
 Manual 587915 41768 6.6 %   364312 265371 42.1 %  
Shift work
 No 1656145 74247 4.3 % 0.966 1268234 462159 26.7 % 0.012
 Yes 287807 12662 4.2 %   182468 118001 39.3 %  
Weekly working hours
  ≤ 40 600759 24241 3.9 % 0.740 463403 161597 25.9 % 0.226
 40 < x ≤ 48 452960 27724 5.8 %   328092 152592 31.7 %  
 48 < x ≤ 60 646323 22822 3.4 %   498059 171086 25.6 %
  > 60 243910 12122 4.7 %   161147 94885 37.1 %
  1. aestimated population size
  2. bprevalence rate
  3. ctested by chi-square test