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Table 4 Characteristics by hearing impairment in female subjects

From: The association between long working hours and hearing impairment in noise unexposed workers: data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)

Variables Low frequency hearing threshold High frequency hearing threshold
Normala Impaireda Rateb p-valuec Normala Impaireda Rateb p-valuec
Total 1702929 46659 2.7 %   1555827 193761 11.1 %  
Age
 25–34 630799 5583 0.9 % < 0.001 631885 4497 0.7 % < 0.001
 35–44 566561 10259 1.8 %   542400 34420 6.0 %  
 45–54 374768 13832 3.6 %   300648 87951 22.6 %
 55–64 130801 16985 11.5 %   80894 66892 45.3 %
BMI (kg/m2)
 Underweight 129378 3565 2.7 % 0.119 126952 5992 4.5 % 0.292
 Normal 1247967 41229 3.2 %   1134145 155051 12.0 %  
 Obese 325584 1864 0.6 %   294730 32718 10.0 %
Education
  ≤ Middle school 188166 23009 10.9 % < 0.001 138642 72534 34.3 % < 0.001
 High school 686690 15105 2.2 %   616569 85226 12.1 %  
  ≥ College 828073 8545 1.0 %   800616 36002 4.3 %
Marital status
 Never married 414719 3446 0.8 % 0.125 416248 1916 0.5 % < 0.001
 Married 1123927 39277 3.4 %   1002594 160611 13.8 %  
 Others 164283 3936 2.3 %   136984 31234 18.6 %
Household income
 Low 86509 2131 2.4 % 0.985 76211 12429 14.0 % 0.901
 Mid-low 376350 10639 2.7 %   340629 46359 12.0 %  
 Mid-high 628839 18711 2.9 %   581604 65946 10.2 %
 High 611231 15178 2.4 %   557382 69027 11.0 %
Smoking
 Non-smoker 1526154 40625 2.6 % 0.455 1399823 166956 10.7 % 0.482
 Ex-smoker 67787 0 0.0 %   61194 6593 9.7 %  
 Current smoker 108988 6033 5.2 %   94810 20212 17.6 %
Alcohol
 None 320909 15928 4.7 % 0.190 283099 53737 16.0 % 0.044
 Light drinker 1269704 26496 2.0 %   1159958 136243 10.5 %  
 Heavy drinker 112316 4235 3.6 %   112770 3781 3.2 %
Exercise
 No 1417873 40208 2.8 % 0.663 1293030 165051 11.3 % 0.664
 Yes 285056 6451 2.2 %   262797 28710 9.8 %  
Occupation
 Non-manual 1432594 23414 1.6 % < 0.001 1348346 107663 7.4 % < 0.001
 Manual 270335 23244 7.9 %   207481 86098 29.3 %  
Shift work
 No 1402762 39457 2.7 % 0.780 1301174 141045 9.8 % 0.041
 Yes 300167 7202 2.3 %   254653 52716 17.2 %  
Weekly working hours
  ≤ 40 822475 13340 1.6 % 0.014 773741 62075 7.4 % < 0.001
 40 < x ≤ 48 442782 7511 1.7 %   412838 37454 8.3 %  
 48 < x ≤ 60 322857 15296 4.5 %   279331 58822 17.4 %
  > 60 114816 10512 8.4 %   89917 35410 28.3 %
  1. aestimated population size
  2. bprevalence rate
  3. ctested by chi-square test