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Table 5 Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for hearing impairment by gender according to weekly working hours

From: The association between long working hours and hearing impairment in noise unexposed workers: data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)

Weekly working hours Male Female
Low frequency hearing impairment High frequency hearing impairment Low frequency hearing impairment High frequency hearing impairment
Model 1a
  ≤ 40 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 40 < x ≤ 48 1.52(0.52–4.39) 1.33(0.8–2.22) 1.05(0.35–3.14) 1.13(0.61–2.09)
 48 < x ≤ 60 0.88(0.30–2.56) 0.99(0.59–1.64) 2.92(0.85–10.06) 2.62(1.34–5.15)
  > 60 1.23(0.38–4.03) 1.69(0.96–2.97) 5.64(1.65–19.34) 4.91(2.06–11.68)
Model 2b
  ≤ 40 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 40 < x ≤ 48 1.83(0.61–5.45) 1.77(0.99–3.18) 1.49(0.46–4.89) 1.44(0.74–2.78)
 48 < x ≤ 60 1.12(0.40–3.13) 1.45(0.84–2.49) 3.55(0.84–14.95) 3.84(1.82–8.1)
  > 60 1.13(0.36–3.55) 1.70(0.87–3.31) 4.24(1.05–17.14) 5.12(1.85–14.18)
Model 3c
  ≤ 40 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 40 < x ≤ 48 1.79(0.65–4.98) 1.71(0.95–3.08) 1.22(0.36–4.13) 1.28(0.65–2.54)
 48 < x ≤ 60 1.10(0.44–2.77) 1.34(0.77–2.33) 2.93(0.54–15.74) 3.53(1.57–7.95)
  > 60 1.22(0.31–4.86) 1.61(0.80–3.22) 4.22(1.09–16.27) 4.49(1.73–11.67)
  1. aModel 1 : crude model
  2. bModel 2 : adjusted with age, BMI and socioeconomic status (education, marital status and household income)
  3. cModel 3 : Model2 + health-related behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake and exercise) and occupational characteristics (job type, shift work)