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Table 1 Association between general characteristics and PTSD symptoms (n = 112)

From: Self-resilience as a protective factor against development of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in police officers

General characteristics PTSD symptoms p-value*
  Yes (n = 18) No (n = 94)  
  n % n %  
Age (years)a 54.44 ± 3.27 54.06 ± 3.28 0.65
Level of education completed
 Middle school or below 2 11.11 10 10.64 0.87
 High school 8 44.44 36 38.30  
 College or above 8 44.44 48 51.06  
Marital status
 Married 16 88.89 85 90.43 0.56
 Divorced or widowed 2 11.11 9 9.57  
Smoking
 Non-smoker 8 44.44 43 45.74 0.76
 Ex-smoker 3 16.67 10 10.64  
 Current smoker 7 38.89 41 43.62  
Alcohol drinking frequency (drinks)
 None 4 22.22 20 21.28 0.94
  ≤ 1 per week 5 27.78 23 24.47  
  ≥ 2 per week 9 50.00 51 54.25  
Service area (for patrol)
 Rural 6 33.33 41 43.62 0.29
 Urban 12 66.67 53 56.38  
Duration of patrol service (years)
 10< 8 44.44 38 40.43 0.95
 10–19 4 22.22 22 23.40  
  ≥ 20 6 33.33 34 36.17  
Job stressa 57.25 ± 12.06 45.57 ± 10.91 0.02
Depression
 Normal 2 11.11 48 51.06 0.01
 Mild 6 33.33 26 27.66  
 Severe 6 33.33 12 12.77  
 Very severe 4 22.22 8 8.51  
Self-resilienceb
 High (CD-RI-K score ≥64.5) 6 33.33 68 72.34 0.00
 Low (CD-RI-K score <64.5) 12 66.67 26 27.66  
Self resiliencea·c 51.93 ± 8.21 69.58 ± 8.67 0.00
  (Total CD-RI-K score)      
  1. Based on a chi-squared test*
  2. aand two-sample t-test
  3. bCategorical data 1: Data comparing two groups (64.5 was a standard value)
  4. cContinuous data 2: Continuous comparison data based on the total score of K-CDRI; higher score means higher resilience