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Table 1 Demographic distributions and geometric mean concentrations of urinary BTEX metabolites

From: The relationship between urinary BTEX metabolites and residence setting among Korean homemakers: the first Korea National Environmental Health Survey (2009–2011)

  N (%) t,t-Muconic acid
(μg/g Cr ± SE)
Hippuric acid
(g/g Cr ± SE)
Mandelic acid
(mg/g Cr ± SE)
Phenylglyoxylic acid
(mg/g Cr ± SE)
Methylhippuric acid
(mg/g Cr ± SE)
Total 893 (100) 46.80 ± 2.48 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.27
Age
 19–29 34 (3.8) 38.72 ± 10.07 0.16 ± 0.07 0.21 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.10
 30–39 221 (24.7) 51.92 ± 5.60 0.21 ± 0.01 0.23 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.01 0.31 ± 0.05
 40–49 173 (19.4) 51.73 ± 5.47 0.27 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.05
 50–59 243 (27.2) 46.49 ± 5.13 0.26 ± 0.02 0.26 ± 0.01 0.28 ± 0.01 0.31 ± 0.05
 60–69 177 (19.8) 38.66 ± 4.36 0.27 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.02 0.34 ± 0.07
  ≥ 70 45 (5.0) 48.49 ± 9.39 0.33 ± 0.04 0.26 ± 0.03 0.30 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.12
   p-value 0.009 <0.001 0.001 <0.001 0.319
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 25 580 (64.9) 45.13 ± 3.00 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.03
  ≥ 25 313 (35.1) 50.06 ± 4.37 0.24 ± 002 0.25 ± 0.01 0.28 ± 0.01 0.31 ± 0.04
   p-value 0.094 0.462 0.936 0.090 0.631
Monthly household income (million won)
  < 1.5 247 (27.7) 46.68 ± 4.55 0.25 ± 0.02 0.26 ± 0.01 0.31 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.05
 1.5–2.5 225 (25.2) 44.68 ± 4.60 0.24 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.01 0.33 ± 0.06
 2.5–4 271 (30.3) 51.11 ± 4.92 0.25 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.04
  ≥ 4 150 (16.8) 42.97 ± 5.90 0.27 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.01 0.32 ± 0.07
   p-value 0.192 0.600 0.585 <0.001 0.316
  1. Abbreviations: SE standard error, BMI body mass index