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Table 2 Geometric mean concentrations of urinary BTEX metabolites by housing characteristics

From: The relationship between urinary BTEX metabolites and residence setting among Korean homemakers: the first Korea National Environmental Health Survey (2009–2011)

  t,t-Muconic acid
(μg/g Cr ± SE)
Hippuric acid
(g/g Cr ± SE)
Mandelic acid
(mg/g Cr ± SE)
Phenylglyoxylic acid
(mg/g Cr ± SE)
Methylhippuric acid
(mg/g Cr ± SE)
Variable Category N (%) Crude Adjusted* Crude Adjusted* Crude Adjusted* Crude Adjusted* Crude Adjusted*
Type of residence Detached 214 (24.0) 45.93 ± 5.31 46.85 ± 0.06 0.25 ± 0.02 0.24 ± 0.06 0.27 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.04 0.29 ± 0.01 0.28 ± 0.04 0.34 ± 0.05 0.32 ± 0.08
Multiplex or apartment 679 (76.0) 47.08 ± 2.80 46.81 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.02 0.30 ± 0.03 0.30 ± 0.04
p-value 0.729 0.991 0.734 0.580 0.018 0.173 0.002 0.179 0.235 0.332
Age of building (years) ≤5 53 (5.9) 54.71 ± 8.02 52.09 ± 0.12 0.21 ± 0.03 0.24 ± 0.12 0.26 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.08 0.24 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.08 0.40 ± 0.08 0.43 ± 0.15
6–10 175 (19.6) 46.80 ± 6.02 46.57 ± 0.07 0.23 ± 0.02 0.23 ± 0.07 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.04 0.26 ± 0.02 0.27 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.09
11–15 175 (19.6) 43.34 ± 5.29 43.16 ± 0.07 0.25 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.07 0.25 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.04 0.24 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.04 0.33 ± 0.06 0.33 ± 0.08
16–20 197 (22.1) 48.09 ± 5.17 47.80 ± 0.06 0.26 ± 0.02 0.27 ± 0.06 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.04 0.28 ± 0.01 0.28 ± 0.04 0.30 ± 0.06 0.30 ± 0.08
≥21 293 (32.8) 46.77 ± 4.49 47.66 ± 0.05 0.25 ± 0.02 0.24 ± 0.05 0.25 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.03 0.27 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.03 0.32 ± 0.06 0.32 ± 0.07
p-value 0.528 0.645 0.463 0.593 0.985 0.582 0.062 0.175 0.003 0.001
Distance from major road (meters) ≤100 414 (46.4) 46.91 ± 3.24 46.62 ± 0.04 0.24 ± 0.02 0.24 ± 0.04 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.03 0.32 ± 0.04 0.32 ± 0.06
>100 479 (53.6) 46.71 ± 3.55 46.99 ± 0.04 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.04 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.03 0.27 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.03 0.29 ± 0.04 0.29 ± 0.05
p-value 0.944 0.890 0.494 0.754 0.918 0.827 0.087 0.191 0.168 0.143
Recent remodeling (6 month) No 779 (87.2) 46.91 ± 3.24 45.47 ± 0.03 0.24 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.04 0.29 ± 0.04
Yes 114 (12.8) 56.56 ± 7.67 56.88 ± 1.09 0.24 ± 0.02 0.24 ± 0.08 0.25 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.05 0.26 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.05 0.37 ± 0.11 0.37 ± 0.10
p-value 0.018 0.011 0.739 0.699 0.642 0.590 0.518 0.459 0.059 0.046
  1. *Estimated geometric means and p-values were calculated by ANCOVA and adjusted for age, BMI, and monthly income
  2. Abbreviation: SE standard error