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Table 2 Prevalence of microalbuminuria according to variables

From: Association between shift work and microalbuminuria: data from KNHANES(2012–2014)

Variables Male Female
ACR < 30 ACR ≥ 30 P-value ACR < 30 ACR ≥ 30 P-value
Age (years) 20–29 99.5(0.5) 0.5(0.5) <0.01   100(0.0) <0.01
30–39 95.6(1.2) 4.4(1.2) 100(0.0)  
40–49 95.0(1.2) 5.0(1.2) 92.3(4.3) 7.7(4.3)
50–59 93.4(1.2) 6.6(1.2) 92.8(1.4) 7.2(1.4)
≥ 60 89.0(1.7) 11.0(1.7) 86.4(2.0) 13.6(2.0)
Body mass index <23 95.7(0.9) 4.3(0.9) <0.01 93.1(1.8) 6.9(1.8) 0.07
23–25 97.1(0.7) 2.9(0.7) 89.3(2.2) 10.7(2.2)
≥25 91.5(1.0) 8.5 (1.0) 86.4(2.0) 13.6(2.0)
Education ≤ Elementary school 92.4(1.6) 7.6(1.6) 0.30 87.5(1.7) 12.5(1.7) 0.23
Middle school 93.9(1.6) 6.1(1.6) 93.6(1.9) 6.4(1.9)
High school 94.4(0.8) 5.6(0.8) 90.2(2.7) 9.8(2.7)
≥ University 95.9(1.0) 4.1(1.0) 94.5(5.3) 5.5(5.3)
Household income Low 95.4(1.0) 4.6(1.0) 0.44 90.0(2.3) 10.0(2.3) 0.63
Low-middle 93.0(1.2) 7.0(1.2) 90.5(1.9) 9.5(1.9)
Middle-high 94.7(1.0) 5.3(1.0) 87.3(2.4) 12.7(2.4)
High 94.7(1.4) 5.3(1.4) 91.4(2.8) 8.6(2.8)
Work pattern Day-worker 94.2(0.7) 5.8(0.7) 0.34 90.8(1.2) 9.2(1.2) <0.05
Shift worker 95.4(1.0) 4.6(1.0) 83.1(3.8) 16.9(3.8)
Smoking status Non-smoker 95.2(1.3) 4.8(1.3) 0.67 90.0(1.2) 10.0(1.2) 0.28
Ex-smoker 94.9(1.0) 5.1(1.0) 79.0(9.1) 21.0(9.1)
Current smoker 93.9(0.9) 6.1(0.9) 89.1(6.3) 10.9(6.3)
Heavy alcohol drink Yes 91.9(1.7) 8.1(1.7) 0.06 95.6(4.6) 4.4(4.6) 0.38
No 94.8(0.6) 5.2(0.6) 89.6(1.1) 10.4(1.1)
  1. Data are shown as percentage(standard error) for categorical variables
  2. P-value is calculated by χ2 test for categorical variables