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Table 1 General characteristics of the subjects

From: Insomnia and hearing impairment among occupational noise exposed male workers

Variables Frequency (%) or mean ± SD p-value*
Normal hearing
(N = 277)
Hearing impairment
(N = 532)
Age (years) 43.7 ± 5.8 46.8 ± 6.0 <0.001
Working period (years) 17.5 ± 6.5 22.8 ± 6.1 <0.001
Noise level (decibel) 79.1 ± 3.6 80.3 ± 2.8 0.010
Waist circumference (cm) 84.8 ± 7.2 85.5 ± 7.2 0.181
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.5 ± 3.0 24.7 ± 2.7 0.304
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 125.7 ± 11.1 125.5 ± 9.3 0.781
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81.8 ± 6.9 81.7 ± 6.9 0.809
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 195.1 ± 32.5 196.1 ± 34.2 0.677
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 167.6 ± 127.4 162.3 ± 108.4 0.533
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 47.1 ± 9.9 48.0 ± 11.0 0.295
Glucose (g/dL) 105.3 ± 17.3 108.4 ± 24.4 0.063
ISI score 7.9 ± 4.8 8.7 ± 5.3 0.039
Smoking    0.863
 Non-smoker 61 (22.0) 120 (22.6)  
 Ex- or current smoker 216 (78.0) 412 (77.4)  
Drinking    0.924
 Non-drinker 71 (25.6) 138 (25.9)  
 Drinker 206 (74.4) 394 (74.1)  
Exercise    0.892
 Physical inactivity 94 (33.9) 178 (33.5)  
 Physical activity 183 (66.1) 354 (66.5)  
Hypertension    0.058
 No 262 (94.6) 483 (90.8)  
 Yes 15 (5.4) 49 (9.2)  
Diabetes mellitus    0.329
 No 268 (96.8) 507 (95.3)  
 Yes 9 (3.2) 25 (4.7)  
Snoring    <0.001
 No 208 (75.1) 280 (52.6)  
 Yes 69 (24.9) 252 (47.4)  
Protection device use    0.001
 No or seldom 98 (35.4) 255 (47.9)  
 Always 179 (64.6) 277 (52.1)  
Insomnia    0.022
 No 255 (92.1) 461 (86.7)  
 Yes 22 (7.9) 71 (13.3)  
  1. * p-value was calculated by Student t-test and chi-square test