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Table 1 General characteristics of subjects

From: The association between cadmium and lead exposure and blood pressure among workers of a smelting industry: a cross-sectional study

Classification variables   Number Geometric mean (95% CI)
Blood lead
(ug/dL)
Blood cadmium
(ug/L)
Total   310 5.839 (5.421–6.068) 1.053 (0.980–1.131)
Age group (years) 20 ~ 29(a) 57 4.991 (4.313–5.774) 0.655 (0.529–0.812)‡,c
30 ~ 39(b) 86 5.792 (5.217–6.431) 1.036 (0.933–1.150)
40 ~ 49(c) 99 5.961 (5.379–6.605) 1.172 (1.055–1.303)
≥ 50(d) 68 6.017 (5.385–6.722) 1.347 (1.187–1.575)
Work period (years) < 10(e) 145 5.698 (5.243–6.192) 0.829 (0.739–0.930)‡,d
10 – 19(f) 77 5.928 (5.230–6.718) 1.193 (1.071–1.328)
≥ 20(g) 88 5.632 (5.109–6.209) 1.399 (1.258–1.555)
BMI (kg/m2) < 23 90 5.747 (5.149–6.415) 1.036 (0.903–1.189)
23–24.9 85 5.567 (5.006–6.190) 1.067 (0.927–1.228)
≥ 25 135 5.836 (5.359–6.356) 1.055 (0.949–1.173)
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) ≤ 99 229 5.851 (5.489–6.236) 1.032 (0.948–1.123)
100–125 68 5.357 (4.675–6.139) 1.140 (0.992–1.311)
≥ 126 13 5.768 (4.471–7.441) 0.985 (0.633–1.534)
Dyslipidemia No 135 5.424 (4.958–5.932) 0.965 (0.865–1.078)
Yes 175 5.988 (5.571–6.436) 1.126 (1.026–1.235)
High risk alcohol drinking habita No 182 5.900 (5.465–6.370) 1.010 (0.889–1.149)
Yes 128 5.509 (5.071–5.984) 1.083 (0.997–1.176)
Smoking status Current non smoker 167 5.232 (4.856–5.637) 0.972 (0.875–1.080)
Current smoker 143 6.385 (5.875–6.939) 1.155 (1.052–1.268)
Adequate exerciseb No 141 5.726 (5.292–6.197) 1.003 (0.894–1.125)
Yes 169 5.743 (5.299–6.223) 1.096 (1.002–1.199)
Family history of hypertension No 277 5.739 (5.403–6.096) 1.046 (0.970–1.128)
Yes 33 5.705 (4.845–6.717) 1.114 (0.885–1.402)
  1. p - value was calculated by Student t-test, analysis of variance. aDrink more than 8 glasses per day. bExercise harder than moderate physical activity at least 30 min per day and 3 times per week. p < 0.05, cpost hoc comparison: (a) < (b), (c), (d), dpost hoc comparison: (e) < (f), (g)