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Table 2 Literature review for potential exposure while painting process in Korea 1989-2010

From: Overview of occupational cancer in painters in Korea

Author Journal Published year Industry (or occupation) Exposure and/or biologic exposure indices (BEI) Exposure dose GM (GSD or range) Remark
Kim et al. [24] 1989 Chemical manufacture (23 places)
Rubber manufacture(5)
Basic metal manufacture(40)
1.painting
2.spray/dry
Assembly metal product manufacture(112)
Other manufacture(5)
Toluene, xylene
Toluene, MEK
Toluene
N-hexane
Toluene, MEK
25, 35 unit: ppm
75, 125
32(20-50)
55
24.5 (7.5-100), 66 (25-175)
Values without range included
Kim et al. [25] 1991 Machinery maintenance
Painting (spray)
Toluene, urinary hippuric acid (HA) 20.73 (13.97) ppm, 0.52 (0.23) g/L Toluene dose in air and Urinary HA
Kim et al. [26] 1991 Vehicle maintenance (4 paintings)
Metal painting (7)
Wood furniture painting (26)
Instrument painting (7)
   -organic solvent detection rate from thinner:
Toluene (76.4%)
- TLV excess
By paintings: Instrument painting (71.4%)
By components: PAHs (29.5%)
No comment for benzene
Available information of paint property, type of organic solvents detected from thinner, and their exposure level.
Jeong et al. [27] 1991 Surveillance program from 1st Jan1990 ~ 31th Dec 1990
404 workers from 5 Painting shops included
male more than 10 years
: 62.7%,
female 1-3 years 60.0%
Toluene
MEK
Acetone
MIBK
Methanol
Xylene
  48.3 (10-85)
151.6 (124-178)
13.7 (8-21)
100 (100)
20.5 (12-21)
60.0 (20-80)
 
Lee et al. [28] 1992 Chemical fiber factory Organic solvent, Urinary HA 2.953 (1.497), p < 0.01 unit: g/L Relation between urinary MA and mental health
Kang et al. [29] 1993 -Low exposure: paint plant, instrument plant, leather plant
-Medium exposure: running shoes plant, shoes plant
-High exposure: shoes plant boat plant
   Toluene level in air
< 10 ppm
10-50 ppm
> 50 ppm
 
Kim et al. [30] 1993 Furniture painting,
Metal painting
Toluene
mixture
urinary NAG
urinary MA
AM (SD), GM
furniture painting(n = 33); metal painting(n = 18)
Toluene: 30.1 (39.4), 18.3; 35.1 (21.0), 30.1
0.44 (0.55), 0.27; 0.46 (0.24). 0.41
Urinary NAG: 57.5 (31.11); 19.9 (19.7)
Urinary MA: 567.1 (721.9); 462.4 (342.7)
unit nmolMU/h of incubation/mg creatinine
no GM values of urinary NAG, urinary MA
Roh et al. [31] 1993 Vehicle manufacture (A), Auto mechanic (B) m + p xylene,
o- xylene
Urinary MA, urinary m + p xylene
Urinary o-xylene
A (n = 151); B (n = 40)
Unit (g/L)
0.36 (0.33); 0.29 (0.21)
0.09 (0.12); 0.03 (0.03)
0.21 (0.16); 0.06 (0.08)
Relation between organic solvent component and health effect
Lee et al. [32] 1995 Painting procedure of fishing rod manufacture p-xylene
m-xylene
o-xylene
toluene
  3 places of painting a,b,c,
2.29 0.94 4.74
1.54 0.62 3.20
1.72 0.61 2.66
0.22 0.58 1.22
Surveillance by quantitative analysis of organic solvent
Choi et al. [4] 1997 Paint spray industry
Metal manufacture
Steel production for container manufacture usage
Total chrome
Hexavalent chrome
  Exposure time AM: 0.264, PM: 0.318
Automatic spray: 0.001-0.060, Manual spray: 0.029-0.226 mg/m3
Information of perforation of nasal septum
Hong et al. [33] 1997 Shipbuilding painting
- spray (1-3)
- brush (4-6)
Volatile coal tar pitch   Worker 1. Worker 2. Worker 3.
0.15 0.12 0.14 (unit mg/m3)
Worker 4. Worker 5. Worker 6.
0.21 0.11 0.10 (unit mg/m3)
The relation between Coal tar included paint and phototoxic contact dermatitis
Paik et al. [34] 1998 Size of enterprise (large(L) medium (M), small (S))
(L) Elevator painting (17)
(M) Vehicle painting(56)
(S) Elevator painting (3)
244 samples
170 personal samples (PS)
74 areal samples (AS)
(L)Toluene, Xylene
PS (n = 8)
AS (n = 9)
(M) n-hexane, toluene
PS (n = 29)
AS (n = 27)
(S) Toluene, Xylene
PS (n = 3)
Exposure index
0.006 (1.25)
0.005 (1.50)
0.01 (4.00)
0.002 (2.00)
0.35 (1.20)
 
Shin et al. [5] 1999 Total 5 shipbuilding plant    Major organic solvent of paint, thinner, and binder
➔ xylene (60% of thinner, average: 67.1%) others: toluene, isopropanol, 2-metoxypropanol etc.,
xylene: included in every types of paints
toluene: amino included paint 10-20%, epoxy included paint 13.6%, vinyl included paint 14.3%
coal tar pitch: 40 types of paints included (13%)
lead chromate, zinc potassium chromate included paint: 8%
vehicle: epoxy resin(19.9%, mostly) > alkyd resin(16%) > acryl resin(14.2%)
Hazardous components of shipbuilding paint
Presentation of silica exposure
silica (silicon doxide) included in extender of 27 out of 309 paints (8.8%)
Won et al. [35] 1999 Metal manufacture 862 place, auto or ship mechanic 485
Electro device manufacture 454, chemical material manufacture 293
small company less than 50 workers
Organic solvent 54 types
= > type 1 organic solvent 5 types, type 2 organic solvent 31, type 3 organic solvent 2+, non -legal measurement duty material 15, benzene
Highest detection rate: toluene (84.8%) > xylene (46.4%) > methyl ethyl ketone (31.1%) > n-hexane 22.7%) > benzene (20.4%)
Organic solvent areal air sample
Total work hour in the organic solvent handling workplace: average 505 (8.4) (480-720 min)
Average time due to organic solvent usage 437 (28.7) (100-720 min)
practical estimate time of organic solvent: average 254 (288.8) (40-382 min)
 
Won et al. [36] 2000 Organic solvent
3280 work places
4181 work process
   Highest frequency of all work processes
spray: ketone: 0.85 times, ester 0.66
brush: Ketone 0.72, Aliphatic hydrocarbon 0.33
mixed: ketone 0.9, Alcohol 0.53
Detection number per single sample according to work process
PAHs 1.14~ 2.39 times detected of all processes:
Joo et al. [37] 2000 Shipbuilding painting 674 workers xyelne,
ethyl benzene, ethyl toluene
  17 ppm
4 ppm
3 ppm
 
Koh et al. [38] 2001 Shipbuilding painting 28 workers
By process
-spray:10 workers
-brush: 18 workers
By sealing property
-inside of the block
-outside of the block
-in/outside
xylene   12.81 (3.03) unit ppm
11.82 (2.94)
- No. spray No. brush
6 41.68 (2.03) 27 15.49 (2.29)
3 5.16 (3.06) 9 2.77 (2.14)
21 10.38 (2.64) 18 16.78 (2.69)
Sample measurement 3 times relatively
Kwon et al. [39] 2001 Auto mechanic workplace (1) - surfacer
solvent based paint (n = 8)
toluene, butyl acetate, m-xylene
water based paint (n = 7)
2-butoxyl ethanol
- top coating, color base,solvent based paint(n = 8)
Butyl acetate, m-xylene, toluene
- water based painting (n = 8)
2-butoxy ethanol
Unit ppm
27.76 (15.79-35.36), 21.82 (11.71-28.83), 10.9696 (5.96-14.34)
6.91 (5.73-7.92)
24.54 (11.56-32.59), 17.86 (8.50-23.73),14.88 (7.48-19.12)
4.72 (1.10-11.57)
*different components between solvent- and water-based paints: more diverse organic solvents included in solvent based paint
Kim et al. [40] 2001 Paint remove process Methylene chloride   Personal sample(n = 14) 30.40 (3.39)
Areal sample(n = 2) 2.24 unit ppm
Methylene chloride exposure of paint removal worker
Moon et al. [41] 2001 11 manufacture factories 1267 workers
Painting process (442 workers, 34.2% of total workers)
1,2-Dichloroethane
Cellosolve
N.N.-dimethyl furan
2.0 (3.0)
3.0 (1.5)
5.5 (4.4)
I-OHP level difference by process (u mol/mol creatinine)
Mixed solvents: used in 20 paint processes (average 12 types)
Jeon et al. [21] 2001 Coal tar pitch included paint
Manufacture factory(n = 4)
Shipbuilding plant(n = 4)
Steel pipe plant (n = 2)
PAHs in air 1-OHP Before/after work
Shipbuilding: brush (n = 35) 12.66 (3.91)/29.06 (2.75)
Steel pipe: paint (n = 14) 28.88 (6.80)/78.90 (3.18)
Paint manufacture: mixing (n = 8) 1.83 (5.03)/1.96 (6.05)
PAHs level by industry (mg/m3):
Shipbuilding plant (n = 66) 0.092 (8.674)
Steel pipe plant (n = 20) 0.520 (2.741)
Paint manufacture (n = 25) 0.012 (3.685)
 
Park et al. [42] 2002 Instrument factory(n = 3), furniture factory(n = 1), other material factory(n = 1): all painting process MIBK,
Toluene,
Cellosolve acetate
0.251 (4.4318)
0.2442 (9.2979)
0.3872 (2.5435)
Air level organic solvent
Cho et al. [43] 2002 Auto mechanics (n = 23/ 54 workers)
painting process
polishing / spraying
Average working year 11.4 yr.
polishing 3.8 h/day
spraying 2.1 h/day
dust
lead
Serum Lead (unit mg/m3)
polishing 2.56 (0.73-10.13) 0.34 (0.44-0.91)
spraying 0.93 (0.27-2.09)
polishing 0.0021(N.D-0.0170) 0.0002 (N.D-0.0007)
spraying 0.0009 (N.D-0.0056)
3.5 (1.3-19.7) 1.4 (N.D-5.7)
*serum lead: workers performed polishing and spraying by daily work condition ➔ no distribution by process
Kim et al. [22] 2005 Coal tar included paint process (n = 10)
Exposure: 107 coal tar using workers
Controls:201 office workers
Coal tar paint used between 2001.05.29-2002.05.30
total PAHs Urinary 1-OHP
Naphtol
Exposure (n = 201) Before;after work (umol/mol creatinine)
8.89 (5.23); 19.02 (5.23)
26.34 (1.89); 33.08 (2.14)
120.17μg/m3(6862.36)
*smoking history+
Smoking and PAH co-exposure: effect of 1-OHP seems to change depending on the level of PAHs
Lee et al. [23] 2005 Auto mechanics
putty process(n = 20, 43 workers: 2005.05-2005.09)
working process of each workers depended on daily working condition (no regular process)
total 49 samples
putty included
toluene
xylene
n-buthyl acetate
methyl isobutyl ketone
methyl ethyl ketone(MEK)
stylene
urinary MA,
urinary MA, urinary mandelic acid
0.45 (0.50) 2.5
0.10 (0.30) 1.5
52.0 (46.3) 0.8
3.00 (2.45) 100
2.81 (2.26) 100
2.16 (1.59) 150
0.78 (0.42) 50
0.91 (0.29) 200
0.48 (0.50) 50
 
Lee et al. [44] 2005 Paint manufacture (n = 5) (coal tar included)
Steel pipe (n = 2) (painting of steel pipe after melting solid coal tar enamel)
44 workers
(PAHs) urinary I-OHP No.
< 10 years 20
≥ 10 years 24
paint manufacture 20
steel pipe 24
13.57 (9.413)
11.89 (6.823)
2.33 (4.409)
51.63 (3.144)
urinary I-OHP was 22 times high in workers of steel pipe painting than of paint manufacture. .
Kim et al. [45] 2006 301 lung cancer patients
(2003.11-2004.11, admission in 4 Busan hospitals)
*work related case
Exposure duration, exposure material
Leather painter: 21 years, furniture painter
: 10 years, chrome
1 case
1 case
Specific occupational lung cancer cases in Busan.
*2 cases: both probable.
*working environment mesasurement result was limited to access.
Min et al. [46] 2009 Shipbuilding painting process(spraying, brushing, paint equipment blasting, paint quality control) MA
Methyl MA
MA
Methyl MA
MA
Methyl MA
Spraying,brushing
0.228 (0.194) 0.263 (0.247)
0.279 (0.417) 0.228 (0.289)
blasting
0.242 (0.250) 0.207 (0.182)
0.072 (0.144) 0.055 (0.114)
Paint quality control
0.165 (0.137)
0.145 (0.467)
unit g/g creatinine
Sim et al. [47] 2009 Auto mechanic painting process dust(n = 27)
lead (n = 27)
toluene(n = 27)
  0.38 (1.78)
0.002 (2.29)
1.08 (2.76)
unit: ppm
Cho et al. [48] 2009 shipbuilding painter Toleuene (100)
xylene(100)
methyl alcohol(200)
MIBK (200)
  Work environment measurement history
In 1989, 1991, 1993, and 1994
70-80, 80-90, 18.15-19.399, and 0.41
100-110, 110, 34.737-56.411, and 68.85
70-80, −, −, and -
-, 40-50, 1.535, and trace
Parkinson disease case report
Workplace evaluation of the patient.
unit: ppm
Lim et al. [20] 2010 128 lung cancer workers
(1999-2005, epidemiologic survey of KOSHA)
* work related case: 53 cases
Painter included (3 cases, 5.7%)
   Exposure duration /carcinogen/ lung cancer case
19.8 years (6.3-29.0)/ asbestos/ 33cases
18.7 (6.3-31.9)/ PAHs/ 23
21.4 9.0-40.0)/ chrome/ 17
20.5 (10.0-40.0)/ silica/ 14
(total number is more than 53 due to multiple causes of lung cancer)
*occupational lung cancer 53 case, non-occupational lung cancer 75 case: no significant difference among age, smoking history and cell type. (P > 0.05)
*descripted exposure material and occupation respectively and no information available of connections of the two categories