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Table 2 Differences in Depressive symptom by Emotional labor-related factors and Workplace violence-related factors

From: Emotional labor, workplace violence, and depressive symptoms in female Bank employees: a questionnaire survey using the K-ELS and K-WVS

Variable Normal Depressive Symptom  
  N (%) N (%) P-value*
Emotional labor
Emotional demanding and regulation    
 Low risk group 178 (92.2) 15 (7.8) 0.1
 High risk group 73 (85.9) 12 (14.1)  
Overload and conflict in customer service    
 Low risk group 191 (92.3) 16 (7.7) 0.057
 High risk group 60 (84.5) 11 (15.5)  
Emotional disharmony and hurt    
 Low risk group 195 (93.8) 13 (6.3) < 0.001†
 High risk group 56 (56.0) 14 (20.0)  
Organizational surveillance and monitoring    
 Low risk group 192 (93.7) 13 (6.3) < 0.001†
 High risk group 59 (80.8) 14 (19.2)  
Organizational supportive and protective system    
 Low risk group 180 (91.8) 16 (8.2) 0.178
 High risk group 71 (86.6) 11 (13.4)  
Workplace violence
Experience of psychological and sexual violence from customer   
 Low risk group 138 (93.2) 10 (6.8) 0.076
 High risk group 113 (86.9) 17 (13.1)  
Experience of psychological and sexual violence from supervisor and coworker   
 Low risk group 212 (93.4) 15 (6.6) < 0.001†
 High risk group 39 (76.5) 12 (23.5)  
Experience of physical violence from customer, supervisor and coworker   
 Low risk group 245 (90.1) 27 (9.9) 0.417
 High risk group 6 (100.0) 0 (0)  
Organizational protective system for workplace violence    
 Low risk group 239 (90.9) 24 (9.1) 0.167
 High risk group 12 (80.0) 3 (20.0)  
Total 251 (90.3) 27 (9.7)  
  1. *by Chi-square test
  2. †p < 0.05