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Table 1 Demographic distributions of the study subjects and urinary cotinine concentration(μg/g creatinine) according to general characteristics

From: Female non-smokers’ environmental tobacco smoking exposure by public transportation mode

  Category N(%) GM(±SE) 95% CI p-value
Total
   1322(100) 1.75(1.03)   
Age (years)
  19–29 182(11.5) 1.35(1.08) 1.16–1.56 0.001
30–39 233(14.7) 1.91(1.07) 1.68–2.18  
40–49 268(16.9) 1.90(1.06) 1.68–2.15  
50–59 348(22.0) 1.92(1.06) 1.73–2.14  
60–69 345(21.8) 1.67(1.05) 1.51–1.85  
≥70 206(13.0) 1.64(1.07) 1.43–1.88  
Region
  Cities 1303(82.4) 1.82(1.03) 1.72–1.92 0.002
Rural area 63(4.0) 1.71(1.14) 1.33–2.21  
Coastal area 28(1.8) 2.00(1.26) 1.24–3.23  
Heavy Metals Monitoring Networka 188(11.9) 1.34(1.07) 1.17–1.54  
Involuntary smoking(per week)
  0 1273(80.5) 1.62(1.03) 1.54–1.71 < 0.001
  1~ 2 109(6.9) 1.87(1.10) 1.55–2.27  
  3~ 4 46(2.9) 2.29(1.16) 1.69–3.11  
5~ 6 39(2.5) 2.42(1.19) 1.69–3.46  
≥7 115(7.3) 3.08(1.10) 2.57–3.69  
BMI (kg/m2)
  Underweight 55(3.5) 1.25(1.15) 0.94–1.67 0.026
Normal 936(59.2) 1.73(1.03) 1.62–1.84  
Obese 591(37.4) 1.84(1.04) 1.70–2.00  
Education
  ≤ Middle school 55(3.5) 1.82(1.04) 1.68–1.97 0.012
High school 936(59.2) 1.86(1.05) 1.70–2.04  
≥ College 591(37.4) 1.56(1.05) 1.43–1.71  
Marital status
  Single 439(27.7) 1.52(1.05) 1.38–1.67 0.001
  Married 1143(72.3) 1.85(1.03) 1.75–1.96  
Household income
  Low 463(29.3) 1.93(1.05) 1.76–2.13 0.003
Mid-low 757(47.9) 1.78(1.04) 1.66–1.92  
Mid-high 352(22.3) 1.49(1.05) 1.35–1.65  
High 10(0.6) 1.91(1.35) 0.96–3.79  
Alcohol
  None 818(51.7) 1.73(1.04) 1.61–1.85 0.363
Light drinkerb 734(46.4) 1.76(1.04) 1.64–1.90  
Heavy drinkerc 30(1.9) 2.25(1.22) 1.48–3.40  
Exercise
  No 1183(74.8) 1.75(1.03) 1.66–1.86 0.986
Yesd 399(25.2) 1.75(1.05) 1.58–1.94  
Job classification
  non-manual 329(24.9) 1.88(1.05) 1.70–2.09 0.263
manual 224(16.9) 1.72(1.07) 1.51–1.95  
housewife, student, unemployed 769(58.2) 1.71(1.03) 1.60–1.82  
  1. *p value calculated by chi-square tests GM geometric mean/SE standard error /CI confidence interval Heavy Metals Monitoring Networka: 42 enumeration district where atmospheric heavy metals monitoring stations are installed. Light drinkerb: drinking less than heavy drinker/Heavy drinkerc: drinking ≥3 times a week and ≥ 7 glasses per occasion for male (≥5 glasses for female). Exercised: exercising ≥3 times a week for ≥20 min with sweating