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Table 2 Demographic and exposure characteristics of the study population

From: Relationship between simultaneous exposure to ergonomic risk factors and work-related lower back pain: a cross-sectional study based on the fourth Korean working conditions survey

  Work-related LBP
Total (n = 40,752) Yes (n, %) No (n, %) p-value
Sex    <  0.001
 Male 2815 (13.1) 18,647 (86.9)  
 Female 3221 (16.7) 16,069 (83.3)  
Age    <  0.001
  < 30 257 (6.2) 3896 (93.8)  
 30–39 740 (9.1) 7312 (90.9)  
 40–49 1425 (12.8) 9669 (87.2)  
 50–59 1513 (16.2) 7804 (83.8)  
  ≥ 60 2101 (26.0) 5975 (74.0)  
Occupation type    <  0.001
 White collar 890 (7.0) 11,819 (93.0)  
 Service workers 1862 (13.5) 11,950 (86.5)  
 Blue collar 3284 (23.1) 10,947 (76.9)  
Employment status    <  0.001
 Self-employed without employees 2510 (23.7) 8103 (76.3)  
 Self-employed with employees 312 (13.1) 2077 (86.9)  
 Paid workers 3214 (11.6) 24,536 (88.4)  
Working hours (/week)    <  0.001
  < 40 1370 (20.7) 5243 (79.3)  
 40–59 2953 (12.0) 21,736 (88.0)  
  ≥ 60 1713 (18.1) 7737 (81.9)  
Shift work    0.578
 Yes 445 (14.5) 2634 (85.5)  
 No 5591 (14.8) 32,082 (85.2)  
Number of employees    <  0.001
  < 5 3619 (19.3) 15,088 (80.7)  
 5–49 1656 (11.2) 13,081 (88.8)  
 50–299 537 (10.7) 4504 (89.3)  
  ≥ 300 224 (9.9) 2043 (90.1)  
Education    <  0.001
 Below elementary 1348 (32.6) 2786 (67.4)  
 Middle & high school 3298 (16.6) 16,537 (83.4)  
 Above university 1390 (8.3) 15,393 (91.7)  
Income (10,000₩/month)    <  0.001
  < 100 1580 (23.6) 5127 (76.4)  
 100–199 2138 (15.8) 11,429 (84.2)  
 200–399 1898 (11.6) 14,454 (88.4)  
  ≥ 400 420 (10.2) 3706 (89.8)  
Rest during work time    <  0.001
 Always & most 2250 (16.4) 11,428 (83.6)  
 Sometimes 3389 (13.6) 21,611 (86.4)  
 Never 397 (19.1) 1677 (80.9)  
Vibration exposure    <  0.001
 None 2164 (11.8) 16,180 (88.2)  
 Mild 2785 (16.9) 13,653 (83.1)  
 Moderate 665 (16.9) 3268 (83.1)  
 Severe 422 (20.7) 1615 (79.3)  
Fatiguing or painful posture    <  0.001
 None 386 (5.5) 6575 (94.5)  
 Mild 2436 (11.8) 18,191 (88.2)  
 Moderate 2077 (21.7) 7499 (78.3)  
 Severe 1137 (31.7) 2451 (68.3)  
Lifting or moving people    <  0.001
 None 3548 (15.1) 20,004 (84.9)  
 Mild 2042 (13.8) 12,727 (86.2)  
 Moderate 285 (14.9) 1630 (85.1)  
 Severe 161 (31.2) 355 (68.8)  
Dragging, pushing, or moving heavy objects    <  0.001
 None 986 (8.8) 10,202 (91.2)  
 Mild 3334 (15.5) 18,217 (84.5)  
 Moderate 1291 (20.6) 4982 (79.4)  
 Severe 425 (24.4) 1315 (75.6)  
Standing posture    <  0.001
 None 577 (9.2) 5665 (90.8)  
 Mild 2108 (12.9) 14,202 (87.1)  
 Moderate 2006 (17.1) 9694 (82.9)  
 Severe 1345 (20.7) 5155 (79.3)  
Repetitive hand or arm movements    <  0.001
 None 448 (8.0) 5148 (92.0)  
 Mild 1562 (11.4) 12,187 (88.6)  
 Moderate 2061 (17.0) 10,066 (83.0)  
 Severe 1965 (21.2) 7315 (78.8)  
  1. Abbreviations: LBP lower back pain
  2. Test for trend was conducted for all variable except ‘shift work’