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Table 2 General and occupational characteristics of study subjects by sleep quality

From: Factors related with quality on sleep of daytime workers

Variables PSQI scorea Sleep quality
Mean ± SD p-valueb Good Poor  
n (%) n (%) p-valuec
Age (in years)   0.059   0.005
 < 30 4.81 ± 2.53   66 (62.9) 39 (37.1)  
 30–39 4.60 ± 2.25   173 (71.2) 70 (28.8)  
 40–49 4.24 ± 1.95   114 (79.7) 29 (20.3)  
50 4.04 ± 2.11   59 (83.1) 12 (16.9)  
Sex   0.003   0.082
 Male 4.40 ± 2.18   386 (74.2) 134 (25.8)  
 Female 5.48 ± 2.57   26 (62.9) 16 (38.1)  
Working period (years)   0.219   0.610
5 4.33 ± 2.02   79 (71.8) 31 (28.2)  
 6–10 4.67 ± 2.48   54 (68.4) 25 (31.6)  
 11–15 5.05 ± 2.59   48 (64.0) 27 (36.0)  
16 4.56 ± 2.15   29 (74.4) 10 (25.6)  
Work type   0.463   0.290
 Blue-collar 4.52 ± 2.34   203 (71.0) 83 (29.0)  
 Office worker 4.31 ± 2.05   113 (77.9) 32 (22.1)  
 Researcher 4.65 ± 2.06   71 (74.7) 24 (25.3)  
Smoking   0.428   0.881
 Non-smoker 4.56 ± 2.36   174 (73.1) 64 (26.9)  
 Ex-smoker 4.26 ± 2.00   97 (74.6) 33 (25.4)  
 Current-smoker 4.55 ± 2.25   113 (72.0) 44 (28.0)  
Alcohol drinking   0.145   0.593
 Non-drinker 4.37 ± 2.21   47 (75.8) 15 (24.2)  
 1/week 4.42 ± 2.14   194 (74.3) 67 (25.7)  
 Over 2/week 4.94 ± 2.25   142 (70.6) 59 (29.4)  
Exercise   0.437   0.266
 No 4.54 ± 2.23   251 (74.7) 85 (25.3)  
 Yes 4.38 ± 2.27   132 (70.2) 56 (29.8)  
BMI (kg/m2)d   0.081   0.021
 < 23 4.25 ± 2.06   139 (79.9) 35 (20.1)  
 23–25 4.35 ± 2.07   125 (74.9) 42 (25.1)  
 25–30 4.73 ± 2.37   133 (67.5) 64 (32.5)  
30 5.14 ± 3.01   13 (59.1) 9 (40.9)  
Metabolic syndrome   0.135   0.415
 No 4.43 ± 2.16   358 (73.8) 127 (26.2)  
 Yes 4.84 ± 2.59   52 (69.3) 23 (30.7)  
Musculoskeletal pain   0.000   0.000
 No 4.32 ± 2.15   347 (76.8) 105 (23.2)  
 Yes 5.50 ± 2.31   40 (54.1) 34 (45.9)  
  1. aPSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
  2. bCalculated using t-test and ANOVA
  3. cCalculated using chi-square test
  4. dBMI Body Mass Index