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Table 2 Number of days the particulate matter 10 (PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels in the winter of 2015 exceeded government thresholds

From: Association between air pollution in the 2015 winter in South Korea and population size, car emissions, industrial activity, and fossil-fuel power plants: an ecological study

  CO (days) PM10 (days)
Mean ± SD Min. Max. Mean ± SD Min. Max.
Population density (persons/km2)a
 Q1 (lowest) 8.3 ± 14.3 0 54 1.4 ± 1.2 0 4
 Q2 28.4 ± 24.4 1 81 4.1 ± 4.7 0 23
 Q3 41.8 ± 19.0 0 79 5.4 ± 5.3 0 21
 Q4 (highest) 30.5 ± 21.1 0 66 2.2 ± 2.9 0 12
No. of car registrationsb
 Q1 (lowest) 7.5 ± 13.9 0 54 2.0 ± 2.6 0 10
 Q2 26.5 ± 24.1 0 77 3.0 ± 3.7 0 16
 Q3 29.0 ± 19.3 0 72 2.9 ± 4.0 0 23
 Q4 (highest) 43.2 ± 20.0 0 81 5.0 ± 5.2 0 21
No. of car accidentc
 Q1 (lowest) 9.9 ± 14.6 0 54 2.1 ± 2.6 0 10
 Q2 21.9 ± 23.0 0 77 2.1 ± 2.6 0 12
 Q3 31.2 ± 19.6 0 72 3.6 ± 4.4 0 23
 Q4 (highest) 43.0 ± 20.4 0 81 4.8 ± 5.2 0 21
Industrial power usage (Kwh/km2)d
 Q1 (lowest) 9.8 ± 13.8 0 46 1.6 ± 1.5 0 4
 Q2 28.2 ± 26.5 0 81 4.2 ± 4.9 0 23
 Q3 38.4 ± 18.6 1 78 5.0 ± 5.1 0 21
 Q4 (highest) 33.8 ± 22.2 0 79 2.6 ± 3.7 0 16
Generation of electricity (Kwh)
 No 27.0 ± 22.8 0 77 2.3 ± 2.8 0 14
 Yes 37.1 ± 21.2 0 81 5.1 ± 5.4 0 23
  1. apopulation density(persons/km2): Q1 < 98.87, 98.87 ≤ Q2 < 459.19, 459.19 ≤ Q3 < 6329.12, 6329.12 ≤ Q4
  2. bNo. of car registrations(1000 cars): Q1 < 16.43, 16.43 ≤ Q2 < 48.90, 48.90 ≤ Q3 < 98.36, 98.36 ≤ Q4
  3. cNo. of car accident: Q1 < 213.00, 213.00 ≤ Q2 < 729.00, 729.00 ≤ Q3 < 1521.00, 1521.00 ≤ Q4
  4. dIndustrial power usage (Kwh/km2): Q1 < 300,926.80, 300,926.80 ≤ Q2 < 1,588,265.70, 1,588,265.70 ≤ Q3 < 8,306,667.40, 8,306,667.40 ≤ Q4