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Table 3 Association between the number of days of excessive particulate matter 10 (PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the winter of 2015 and concentration of putative contaminant sources

From: Association between air pollution in the 2015 winter in South Korea and population size, car emissions, industrial activity, and fossil-fuel power plants: an ecological study

  CO PM10
exp(β) 95% CI exp(β) 95% CI
Population density (person/km2)a
Q1(lowest) 1.00   1.00  
Q2 3.44 1.96–6.04 3.00 1.46–6.17
Q3 5.07 3.00–8.58 3.89 1.97–7.68
Q4(highest) 3.70 2.19–6.26 1.59* 0.79–3.18
No. of car registrationsb
Q1(lowest) 1.00   1.00  
Q2 3.53 1.96–6.38 1.50 0.70–3.21
Q3 3.86 2.22–6.72 1.45* 0.71–2.95
Q4(highest) 5.75 3.32–9.99 2.49 1.23–5.04
No. of car accidentc
Q1(lowest) 1.00   1.00  
Q2 2.20 1.23–3.93 1.00 0.47–2.13
Q3 3.14 1.84–5.36 1.67* 0.84–3.32
Q4(highest) 4.33 2.54–7.38 2.23 1.13–4.40
Industrial power usage (Kwh/ km2)d
Q1(lowest) 1.00   1.00  
Q2 2.88 1.64–5.07 2.69 1.31–5.52
Q3 3.93 2.37–6.51 3.19 1.66–6.12
Q4(highest) 3.46 2.09–5.71 1.70* 0.88–3.27
Generation of electricity (Kwh)
No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 1.37 1.01–1.86 2.27 1.60–3.21
  1. apopulation density(persons/km2): Q1 < 98.87, 98.87 ≤ Q2 < 459.19, 459.19 ≤ Q3 < 6329.12, 6329.12 ≤ Q4
  2. bNo. of car registrations(car/1000): Q1 < 16.43, 16.43 ≤ Q2 < 48.90, 48.90 ≤ Q3 < 98.36, 98.36 ≤ Q4
  3. cNo. of car accident: Q1 < 213.00, 213.00 ≤ Q2 < 729.00, 729.00 ≤ Q3 < 1521.00, 1521.00 ≤ Q4
  4. dIndustrial power usage (Kwh/km2): Q1 < 300,926.80, 300,926.80 ≤ Q2 < 1,588,265.70, 1,588,265.70 ≤ Q3 < 8,306,667.40, 8,306,667.40 ≤ Q4