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Table 2 General and occupational characteristics of male subjects associated with the work-related musculoskeletal symptoms

From: The association between long working hours and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms of Korean wage workers: data from the fourth Korean working conditions survey (a cross-sectional study)

Characteristics Upper limb pain p-value* Lower limb pain p-value*
No(%) Yes(%) No(%) Yes(%)
Total 9493(73.6) 3400(26.4)   10,782(83.6) 2111(16.4)  
Age (years)
 20–29 1356(84.6) 246(15.4) < 0.001 1461(91.2) 141(8.8) < 0.001
 30–39 2813(77.8) 804(22.2)   3199(88.4) 418(11.6)  
 40–49 2623(73.2) 960(26.8)   3024(84.4) 559(15.6)  
 50–59 1734(66.5) 872(33.5)   2008(77.1) 598(22.9)  
  ≥ 60 967(65.1) 518(34.9)   1090(73.4) 395(26.6)  
Education
 Middle school graduate or below 674(54.5) 563(45.5) < 0.001 797(64.4) 440(35.6) < 0.001
 High school graduate 3153(67.9) 1489(32.1)   3684(79.4) 958(20.6)  
 College graduate or above 5666(80.8) 1348(19.2)   6301(89.9) 713(10.2)  
Monthly income (KRW)
  < 1,300,000 1089(72.5) 413(27.5) < 0.001 1170(77.9) 332(22.1) < 0.001
 1,300,000-1,999,000 1576(69.5) 692(30.5)   1790(78.9) 478(21.1)  
 2,000,000-2,999,000 3183(71.6) 1261(28.4)   3707(83.4) 737(16.6)  
  ≥ 3,000,000 3645(77.9) 1034(22.1)   4115(87.9) 564(12.1)  
Occupation
 Managers or Professionals 1031(83.1) 209(16.9) < 0.001 1142(92.1) 98(7.9) < 0.001
 Office workers 2981(84.7) 537(15.3)   3302(93.9) 216(6.1)  
 Technicians 2731(64.8) 1486(35.2)   3255(77.2) 962(22.8)  
 Service or Sales workers 1627(80.8) 386(19.2)   1752(87.0) 261(13.0)  
 Manual workers 1123(59.0) 782(41.0)   1331(69.9) 574(30.1)  
Employment status
 Regular 7874(75.7) 2521(24.3) < 0.001 8954(86.1) 1441(13.9) < 0.001
 Temporary or Day labor 1619(64.8) 879(35.2)   1828(73.2) 670(26.8)  
Shift work
 No 8340(74.3) 2890(25.7) < 0.001 9475(84.4) 1755(15.6) < 0.001
 Yes 1153(69.3) 510(30.7)   1307(78.6) 356(21.4)  
Number of employees
  < 50 6134(72.1) 2375(27.9) < 0.001 6976(82.0) 1533(18.0) < 0.001
 50–299 2082(75.3) 684(24.7)   2373(85.8) 393(14.2)  
  ≥ 300 1277(78.9) 341(21.1)   1433(88.6) 185(11.4)  
Working motion or posture
Lifting or carrying people
 No 5605(73.8) 1990(26.2) 0.054 6364(83.8) 1231(16.2) 0.192
 Yes 3888(73.4) 1410(26.6)   4418(83.4) 880(16.6)  
Carrying heavy loads
 No 3215(84.0) 614(16.0) < 0.001 3503(91.5) 326(8.5) < 0.001
 Yes 6278(69.3) 2786(30.7)   7279(80.3) 1785(19.7)  
Standing continuously
 No 1935(84.1) 365(15.9) < 0.001 2093(91.0) 207(9.0) < 0.001
 Yes 7558(71.3) 3035(28.7)   8689(82.0) 1904(18.0)  
Repetitive movement
 No 1789(88.4) 235(11.6) < 0.001 1884(93.1) 140(6.9) < 0.001
 Yes 7704(70.9) 3165(29.1)   8898(81.9) 1971(18.1)  
Computer work
 No 2381(61.6) 1484(38.4) < 0.001 2817(72.9) 1048(27.1) < 0.001
 Yes 7112(78.8) 1916(21.2)   7965(88.2) 1063(11.8)  
Job stress
 Low 2307(76.4) 713(23.6) < 0.001 2550(84.4) 470(15.6) < 0.001
 High 7115(72.8) 2657(27.2)   8150(83.4) 1622(16.6)  
  No response 71(70.3) 30(29.7)   82(81.2) 19(18.8)  
Social support
 High 8286(74.2) 2877(25.8) < 0.001 9435(84.5) 1728(15.5) < 0.001
 Low 835(67.9) 395(32.1)   947(77.0) 283(23.0)  
 No response 372(74.4) 128(25.6)   400(80.0) 100(20.0)  
  1. *calculated by chi-square test