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Table 3 General and occupational characteristics of female subjects associated with the work-related musculoskeletal symptoms

From: The association between long working hours and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms of Korean wage workers: data from the fourth Korean working conditions survey (a cross-sectional study)

Characteristics Upper limb pain p-value* Lower limb pain p-value*
No(%) Yes(%) No(%) Yes(%)
Total 7972(67.0) 3918(33.0)   9111(76.6) 2779(23.4)  
Age (years)
 20–29 1501(79.9) 378(20.1) < 0.001 1638(87.2) 241(12.8) < 0.001
 30–39 2151(75.4) 701(24.6)   2428(85.1) 424(14.9)  
 40–49 2484(67.2) 1213(32.8)   2856(77.3) 841(22.7)  
 50–59 1320(55.3) 1069(44.7)   1603(67.1) 786(32.9)  
  ≥ 60 516(48.1) 557(51.9)   586(54.6) 487(45.4)  
Education
 Middle school graduate or below 636(44.7) 786(55.3) < 0.001 750(52.7) 672(47.3) < 0.001
 High school graduate 3073(62.8) 1821(37.2)   3588(73.3) 1306(26.7)  
 College graduate or above 4263(76.5) 1311(23.5)   4773(85.6) 801(14.4)  
Monthly income (KRW)
  < 1,300,000 2422(60.9) 1554(39.1) < 0.001 2789(70.1) 1187(29.9) < 0.001
 1,300,000-1,999,000 2859(66.8) 1421(33.2)   3249(75.9) 1031(24.1)  
 2,000,000-2,999,000 1856(73.7) 664(26.3)   2130(84.5) 390(15.5)  
  ≥ 3,000,000 835(75.0) 279(25.0)   943(84.6) 171(15.4)  
Occupation
 Managers or Professionals 1016(75.0) 338(25.0) < 0.001 1123(82.9) 231(17.1) < 0.001
 Office workers 2471(79.0) 655(21.0)   2860(91.5) 266(8.5)  
 Technicians 776(63.6) 445(36.4)   944(77.3) 277(22.7)  
 Service or Sales workers 2908(64.5) 1604(35.5)   3194(70.8) 1318(29.2)  
 Manual workers 801(47.8) 876(52.2)   990(59.0) 687(41.0)  
Employment status
 Regular 5743(68.7) 2616(31.3) < 0.001 6624(79.2) 1735(20.8) < 0.001
 Temporary or Day labor 2229(63.1) 1302(36.9)   2487(70.4) 1044(29.6)  
Shift work
 No 7444(67.5) 3576(32.5) < 0.001 8512(77.2) 2508(22.8) < 0.001
 Yes 528(60.7) 342(39.3)   599(68.9) 271(31.1)  
Number of employees
  < 50 6330(66.1) 3243(33.9) < 0.001 7259(75.8) 2314(24.2) < 0.001
 50–299 1281(70.1) 546(29.9)   1452(79.5) 375(20.5)  
  ≥ 300 361(73.7) 129(26.3)   400(81.6) 90(18.4)  
Working motion or posture
Lifting or carrying people
 No 4540(67.7) 2164(32.3) 0.054 5451(76.9) 1550(23.1) 0.192
 Yes 3432(66.2) 1754(33.8)   3957(76.3) 1229(23.7)  
Carrying heavy loads
 No 3076(76.8) 929(23.2) < 0.001 3440(85.9) 565(14.1) < 0.001
 Yes 4896(32.1) 2989(37.9)   819(79.1) 2155(20.9)  
Standing continuously
 No 1575(77.1) 468(22.9) < 0.001 1809(88.5) 234(11.5) < 0.001
 Yes 6397(65.0) 3450(35.0)   7302(74.2) 2545(25.8)  
Repetitive movement
 No 1370(82.1) 299(17.9) < 0.001 1467(87.9) 202(12.1) < 0.001
 Yes 6602(64.6) 3619(35.4)   7644(74.8) 2577(25.2)  
Computer work
 No 1962(53.5) 1706(46.5) < 0.001 2333(63.6) 1335(36.4) < 0.001
 Yes 6010(73.1) 2212(26.9)   6778(84.4) 1444(17.6)  
Job stress
 Low 2130(69.7) 926(30.3) 0.001 2393(78.3) 663(21.7) 0.039
 High 5773(66.2) 2950(33.8)   6634(76.1) 2089(23.9)  
 No response 69(62.2) 42(37.8)   84(75.7) 27(24.3)  
Social support
 High 6650(67.6) 3191(32.4) 0.028 7643(77.7) 2198(22.3) < 0.001
 Low 842(64.5) 463(35.5)   931(71.3) 374(28.7)  
 No response 480(64.5) 264(35.5)   537(72.2) 207(27.8)  
  1. *calculated by chi-square test