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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects by work schedule

From: The association between shift work and chronic kidney disease in manual labor workers using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2011–2014)

Variable Male   Female  
Day work Shift work Day work Shift work
Total 1707 (79.9) 503 (20.1) 1133 (86.4) 161 (13.6)
Age (years) a,b
 20–29 108 (11.1) 25 (9.3) 33 (5.5) 8 (10.1)
 30–39 312 (22.2) 85 (20.1) 93 (9.9) 10 (5.4)
 40–49 376 (26.9) 90 (22.9) 233 (26.5) 32 (23.7)
 50–59 503 (27.6) 125 (25.8) 346 (30.4) 60 (38.1)
 ≥60 408 (12.2) 178 (21.9) 428 (27.7) 51 (22.8)
Educationa
 ≤ Elementary school 308 (13.7) 109 (16.5) 513 (38.0) 64 (33.4)
 Middle school 321 (17.0) 72 (11.9) 191 (17.5) 24 (14.5)
 High school 788 (51.0) 218 (48.4) 366 (38.4) 62 (44.8)
 ≥ College or graduate school 290 (18.3) 104 (23.2) 63 (6.1) 11 (7.3)
Household income
 Low 190 (7.5) 44 (7.9) 296 (22.2) 40 (21.4)
 Low-middle 569 (34.3) 162 (30.7) 366 (32.0) 45 (28.7)
 Middle-high 568 (35.3) 173 (34.4) 289 (28.6) 44 (29.8)
 High 380 (22.9) 124 (27.0) 182 (17.2) 32 (20.0)
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 279 (17.3) 90 (16.7) 1025 (88.1) 138 (83.0)
 Ex-smoker 607 (31.6) 215 (38.3) 43 (4.7) 7 (4.4)
 Current smoker 821 (51.1) 198 (45.0) 65 (7.2) 16 (12.7)
Alcohol intake (per month)
 Never 216 (10.8) 81 (14.6) 445 (35.9) 62 (34.8)
  ≤ 1 314 (19.0) 106 (19.9) 421 (37.7) 55 (35.0)
 2–3 425 (26.8) 139 (28.1) 183 (18.2) 27 (17.2)
 ≥4 752 (43.4) 177 (37.4) 84 (8.2) 17 (12.9)
Work hours per week a,b
  ≤ 48 1017 (55.8) 174 (38.5) 898 (77.5) 121 (69.2)
  > 48 690 (44.2) 329 (61.5) 235 (22.5) 40 (30.8)
CKD b
 No 1565 (93.2) 458 (93.1) 1024 (91.5) 134 (84.0)
 Yes 142 (6.8) 45 (6.9) 109 (8.5) 27 (16.0)
BMI (kg/m2)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 40 (2.6) 8 (1.6) 30 (2.7) 7 (6.2)
 Normal (18.5–25) 1049 (61.3) 306 (61.1) 709 (62.3) 99 (61.1)
 Overweight (25–30) 553 (31.8) 177 (34.8) 336 (29.8) 42 (24.9)
 Obese (≥30) 65 (4.3) 12 (2.6) 58 (5.1) 13 (7.8)
Diabetes mellitus
 No 1500 (90.1) 458 (87.6) 1020 (91.9) 145 (90.8)
 Yes 207 (9.9) 45 (12.4) 113 (8.1) 16 (9.2)
Hypertension
 No 1119 (70.7) 342 (71.3) 742 (70.4) 116 (75.3)
 Yes 588 (29.3) 161 (28.7) 391 (29.6) 45 (24.7)
SBP (mmHg)a,b 120.3 ± 0.46 119.5 ± 0.68 119.9 ± 0.67 117.3 ± 1.39
DBP (mmHg) a,b 79.5 ± 0.32 78.7 ± 0.65 75.4 ± 0.37 73.7 ± 0.76
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)a,b 100.8 ± 0.64 99.1 ± 0.95 98.0 ± 0.62 98.0 ± 2.33
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)a,b 189.1 ± 0.98 188.5 ± 1.78 195.7 ± 1.36 188.8 ± 3.50
  1. Values are expressed as unweighted counts and estimated percentages N(%) for categorical variables and as the mean ± standard error for continuous variables. aSignificant differences between day work and shift work in male subjects (p < 0.05), bSignificant differences between day work and shift work in female subjects (p < 0.05)