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Table 3 Prevalence of CKD according to work schedules and associated variables in subjects

From: The association between shift work and chronic kidney disease in manual labor workers using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2011–2014)

Variable Male Female
Non CKD CKD a p-valueb Non CKD CKD a p-valueb
Total 2023 (93.2) 187 (6.8)   1158 (90.5) 136 (9.5)  
Age (years) a,b    < 0.001    < 0.001
 20–29 131 (98.3) 2 (1.7)   37 (91.6) 4 (8.4)  
 30–39 380 (95.9) 17 (4.1)   101 (96.6) 2 (3.4)  
 40–49 441 (95.1) 25 (4.9)   252 (95.6) 13 (4.4)  
 50–59 557 (91.8) 51 (8.2)   370 (90.9) 36 (9.1)  
 ≥60 494 (84.1) 92 (15.9)   398 (82.6) 81 (17.4)  
Educationa    < 0.001    < 0.001
 ≤ Elementary school 357 (87.1) 60 (12.9)   492 (85.4) 85 (14.6)  
 Middle school 362 (93.7) 31 (6.3)   194 (91.6) 21 (8.4)  
 High school 928 (93.5) 78 (6.5)   402 (94.1) 26 (5.9)  
 ≥ College or graduate school 376 (96.4) 18 (3.6)   70 (95.3) 4 (4.7)  
Household income    0.022    0.006
 Low 193 (87.1) 41 (12.9)   281 (84.3) 55 (15.7)  
 Low-middle 670 (93.8) 61 (6.2)   371 (91.4) 40 (8.6)  
 Middle-high 686 (93.3) 55 (6.7)   310 (93.5) 23 (6.5)  
 High 474 (94.0) 30 (6.0)   196 (91.6) 18 (8.4)  
Smoking status    0.931    0.902
 Non-smoker 335 (93.1) 34 (6.9)   1040 (90.4) 123 (9.6)  
 Ex-smoker 744 (92.9) 78 (7.1)   46 (92.5) 4 (7.5)  
 Current smoker 944 (93.4) 75 (6.6)   72 (90.1) 9 (9.9)  
Alcohol intake (per month)a    0.453    0.093
 Never 262 (92.5) 35 (7.5)   440 (87.8) 67 (12.2)  
  ≤ 1 392 (94.7) 28 (5.3)   432 (92.2) 44 (7.8)  
 2–3 528 (93.7) 36 (6.3)   196 (93.6) 14 (6.4)  
 ≥4 841 (92.3) 88 (7.7)   90 (87.5) 11 (12.5)  
Work hours per week       
  ≤ 48 1067 (91.6) 124 (8.4) 0.004 911 (90.7) 108 (9.3) 0.680
  > 48 956 (94.9) 63 (5.1)   247 (89.7) 28 (10.3)  
Work schedule    0.926    0.006
 Day work 1565 (93.2) 142 (6.8)   1024 (91.5) 109 (8.5)  
 Shift work 458 (93.1) 45 (6.9)   134 (84.0) 27 (16.0)  
BMI (kg/m2)    0.035    0.083
 Underweight (< 18.5) 45 (95.6) 3 (4.4)   32 (86.0) 5 (14.0)  
 Normal (18.5–25) 1260 (94.4) 95 (5.6)   738 (92.3) 70 (7.7)  
 Overweight (25–30) 651 (91.2) 79 (8.8)   330 (88.2) 48 (11.8)  
 Obese (≥30) 67 (88.4) 10 (11.6)   58 (84.3) 13 (15.7)  
Diabetes mellitus    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No 1818 (95.0) 117 (5.0)   1065 (92.2) 100 (7.8)  
 Yes 205 (77.1) 70 (22.9)   93 (71.7) 36 (28.3)  
Hypertension    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No 1401 (96.4) 60 (3.6)   812 (94.7) 46 (5.3)  
 Yes 622 (85.3) 127 (14.7)   346 (80.2) 90 (19.8)  
  1. Values are expressed as unweighted counts and estimated percentages N (%)
  2. adefined as UACR> 30 mg/g and/or eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated by the CKD-EPI equation
  3. bcalculated by complex samples and the chi-squared test