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Table 2 Chi-square analysis with each risk factor and smoking

From: Effects of work-related factors on self-reported smoking among female workers in call centers: a cross-sectional study

Variables Non-smoker Smoker p-value
n % n %
Emotional labor
aKELS-1 Good 58 89.2 7 10.8 0.464
Risk 266 85.8 44 14.2  
bKELS-2 Good 165 89.7 19 10.3 0.069
Risk 159 83.2 32 16.8  
cKELS-3 Good 187 90.3 20 9.7 0.014
Risk 137 81.5 31 18.5  
dKELS-4 Good 239 88.5 31 11.5 0.055
Risk 85 81 20 19.0  
eKELS-5 Good 304 87.1 45 12.9 0.144
Risk 20 76.9 6 23.1  
Workplace violence
fKWVS-1 Good 262 87.3 38 12.7 0.292
Risk 62 82.7 13 17.3  
gKWVS-2 Good 281 88.4 37 11.6 0.009
Risk 43 75.4 14 24.6  
hKWVS-3 Good 290 86.6 45 13.4 0.785
Risk 34 85 6 15.0  
iKWVS-4 Good 261 87.3 38 12.7 0.318
Risk 63 82.9 13 17.1  
Working condition
Employment type Formal 210 86.8 32 13.2 0.774
Informal 114 85.7 19 14.3  
Working hours (hours/week) < 40 89 95.7 4 4.3 0.003
40–49 220 84.3 41 16.7  
≥50 15 71.4 51 13.6  
Annual salary (million KRW) < 21.4 58 95.1 3 4.9 0.039
≥21.4 266 84.7 48 15.3  
Employment period (years) < 5 149 86.6 23 13.4 0.906
≥5 175 86.2 28 13.8  
Demographic characteristics
Age (years) < 40 311 86.6 48 13.4 0.539
≥40 13 81.3 3 18.8  
  1. p-value by Chi-square test
  2. aKELS-1: Emotional demands and regulation, bKELS-2: Problems in the customer service process, cKELS-3: Emotional disharmony and hurt, dKELS-4: Organizational surveillance and monitoring, eKELS-5: Organizational support and protection system, fKWVS-1: Psychological/sexual violence from customers, gKWVS-2: Psychological/sexual violence in the workplace from supervisor or coworkers, hKWVS-3: Psychological/Physical violence from customers/the workplace, iKWVS-4: Organizational support system for violence