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Table 1 Study subject’s characteristics of Korean manufacturing industry on the second Korean working condition survey (N*= 993)

From: Long Working Hours and Emotional Well-Being in Korean Manufacturing Industry Employees

Variables WHO (five) well-being index p-value
  Reference group (A) Low mood group (B) Possible depression group (C) A:B A:C B:C
  Unweighted frequency Weighted frequency Percent (%) SE ** Unweighted frequency Weighted frequency Percent (%) SE ** Unweighted frequency Weighted frequency Percent (%) SE **    
Total 561 1,983,111 52.4 2.00 247 779,075 23.3 1.67 185 574,932 17.2 1.85    
Gender              0.303 0.509 0.303
  Female 144 473,160 63.02 1.28 53 156,936 20.90 0.75 43 120,768 16.08 0.74    
  Male 417 1,509,951 58.38 1.89 194 622,138 24.06 1.54 142 454,163 17.56 1.67    
Age              0.045 0.722 0.232
  <30 89 426,902 64.10 1.60 25 111,244 16.70 0.76 30 127,837 19.20 0.94    
  30 - 39 202 724,667 62.24 1.72 82 260,735 22.39 0.91 51 178,891 15.36 1.20    
  40 - 49 170 533,161 54.37 1.35 97 283,466 28.91 1.00 64 163,919 16.72 0.69    
  ≥50 100 298,380 56.69 1.12 43 123,630 23.49 0.60 40 104,285 19.81 0.57    
Highest level of education              0.443 0.004 0.030
  Below middle school 48 131,083 57.35 0.62 16 38,580 16.88 0.31 26 58,907 25.77 0.39    
  Graduate high school 240 856,641 55.74 1.71 114 372,103 24.21 1.09 97 308,163 20.05 9.23    
  Above college 273 995,387 63.33 1.79 117 368,391 23.44 1.25 62 207,862 13.23 1.03    
Smoking              0.410 0.249 0.611
  Ex-smoker or never smoker 324 1,134,728 61.71 1.85 136 415,345 22.59 1.37 96 288,737 15.70 1.11    
  Present smoker 237 848,383 56.62 1.59 111 363,729 24.28 1.09 89 286,195 19.10 1.36    
Alcohol drinking              0.178 0.780 0.266
  No or social drinker 448 1,562,632 58.69 2.07 210 650,762 24.44 1.60 147 449,324 16.87 1.35    
  High risk drinker 113 420,479 62.35 1.23 37 128,313 19.03 0.68 38 125,608 18.63 0.98    
Diagnosed obesity              0.115 0.100 0.836
  No 540 1,894,969 58.79 2.06 242 763,348 23.68 1.66 181 564,938 17.53 1.84    
  Yes 21 88,142 77.41 0.68 5 15,726 13.81 0.23 4 9,994 8.78 0.15    
Physical activity***              0.005 0.010 0.952
  No or not enough 455 1,608,080 56.87 2.03 223 702,449 24.84 1.59 167 517,283 18.29 1.72    
  More than 3 days a week 106 375,031 73.64 1.22 24 76,626 15.05 0.55 18 57,649 11.32 0.43    
Average net monthly income (Korean Won, \§)              0.687 0.235 0.035
  < 1,000,000 69 258,545 61.28 1.18 29 127,427 30.20 1.03 14 35,967 8.52 0.31    
  1,000,000 ~ 2,000,000 192 654,230 59.28 1.59 75 228,454 20.70 0.83 71 221,003 20.02 1.01    
  2,000,000 ~ 3,000,000 170 583,216 58.29 1.55 80 235,588 23.55 0.88 60 181,777 18.17 0.90    
  ≥3,000,000 130 487,119 60.07 1.50 63 187,604 23.14 0.85 40 136,184 16.79 0.97    
Company size(no. of employee)              0.107 0.216 0.411
  <5 41 130,830 62.86 0.69 16 54,107 26.00 0.45 7 23,195 11.14 0.29    
  5-49 234 808,088 56.19 1.80 119 378,464 26.32 1.20 86 251,525 17.49 0.93    
  50-299 162 554,311 66.43 1.57 51 148,754 17.83 0.68 45 131,302 15.74 0.70    
  ≥300 110 436,026 56.34 1.75 53 172,717 22.32 1.03 45 165,113 21.34 1.29    
Weekly working hours              0.451 <0.001 <0.001
(0.373) (<0.001) (<0.001)
  Reference time(35–47) 297 1,903,463 63.62 1.92 126 423,350 24.63 1.44 70 201,988 11.75 0.82    
  Long time1(48 ~ 52) 166 530,469 62.07 1.38 58 179,965 21.06 0.77 46 144,201 16.87 0.77    
  Long time2(53–60) 71 254,940 47.97 1.03 51 134,215 25.26 0.57 43 142,269 26.77 0.89    
  Long time3(≥61) 27 104,238 44.88 0.66 12 41,545 17.89 0.41 26 86,474 37.23 0.59    
Shift work              0.502 0.948 0.770
  No 491 1,702,184 59.59 1.97 209 659,455 23.09 1.60 159 494,877 17.32 1.73    
  Yes 70 280,927 58.45 1.14 38 119,620 24.89 0.63 26 80,055 16.66 0.72    
  1. *unweighted case number of workers, **standard error, ***physical activity: sports, outdoor exercise, cultural activity, leisure activity, etc. †p-value by Rao Scott X 2 test ‡p-value by Cochran- Armitage trend test §1USD($) = 1134.8KRW(\)(2010 Survey statistics by currency exchange rates, Ministry of Strategy and Finance, Korea).