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Table 1 Serum 25(OH)D and Urinary arsenic concentration, adjusted for all other variables in the table

From: Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

Variables N Serum 25(OH)D Urinary arsenic
AM (95% CI) p-value GM (95% CI) p-value
Sex      
Men 1613 49.84 (48.34-51.34) * 101.1 (96.42-106.1) *
Women 1780 42.88 (41.62-44.15) 0.000 128.7 (122.8-134.8) 0.000
Age (years)      
20-29 630 41.89 (40.12-43.66) * 69.77 (64.74-75.20) *
30-39 677 45.20 (43.50-46.90) 0.001 100.6 (94.77-106.9) 0.000
40-49 671 45.86 (44.37-47.36) 0.000 127.1 (119.5-135.2) 0.000
50-59 686 49.30 (47.50-51.10) 0.000 141.0 (132.4-150.1) 0.000
60+ 729 48.57 (46.51-50.63) 0.000 155.1 (145.2-165.6) 0.000
Residence location      
Urban 2616 44.81 (43.67-45.94) * 114.4 (110.7-118.2) *
Rural 777 51.30 (48.92-53.69) 0.000 116.9 (106.9-127.7) 0.671
Season      
Spring 905 44.78 (43.23-46.33) * 108.3 (101.5-115.5) *
Summer 788 47.42 (45.57-49.27) 0.017 113.8 (107.5-120.6) 0.222
Fall 534 46.88 (44.99-48.76) 0.055 116.6 (109.0-124.7) 0.126
Winter 1166 45.98 (44.60-47.35) 0.232 120.2 (113.9-126.9) 0.027
Education level      
Less than high school 1149 45.95 (44.15-47.76) * 117.8 (110.9-125.2) *
High school 1023 47.15 (45.72-48.58) 0.264 115.1 (109.1-121.4) 0.568
College and more 1221 45.48 (43.95-47.01) 0.706 112.4 (106.7-118.4) 0.289
Smoking status      
Never-smoker 1872 46.73 (45.45-48.02) * 120.0 (114.9-125.3) *
Past smoker 691 47.13 (45.22-49.03) 0.727 115.5 (108.1-123.4) 0.372
Current smoker 825 44.06 (42.28-45.83) 0.014 103.7 (97.56-110.3) 0.000
Drinking status      
No drink 905 44.78 (43.23-46.33) * 108.3 (101.5-115.5) *
Mild drink 788 47.42 (45.57-49.27) 0.017 113.8 (107.5-120.6) 0.222
Moderate drink 534 46.88 (44.99-48.76) 0.055 116.6 (109.0-124.7) 0.126
Heavy drink 1166 45.98 (44.60-47.35) 0.232 120.2 (113.9-126.9) 0.027
Body Mass Index      
Lean 153 45.89 (42.93-48.84) * 108.7 (96.52-122.4) *
Normal 2162 46.12 (44.98-47.26) 0.876 114.8 (110.7-119.1) 0.382
Obese 1047 46.23 (44.92-47.54) 0.827 116.1 (110.5-122.1) 0.325
Regular exercise      
Yes 534 48.95 (47.07-50.84) * 111.4 (104.0-119.4) *
No 2859 45.62 (44.59-46.65) 0.000 115.6 (111.8-119.5) 0.351
Regular walking      
Yes 1629 47.14 (45.89-48.40) * 115.0 (110.6-119.5) *
No 1764 45.24 (44.06-46.42) 0.006 114.8 (110.3-119.5) 0.952
Seafood consumption      
Less than once a week 310 47.76 (45.42-50.09) * 103.5 (93.93-114.0) *
Once a week 1031 45.47 (44.11-46.83) 0.069 111.0 (105.5-116.9) 0.223
More than once a week 2052 46.26 (45.11-47.41) 0.224 118.7 (114.6-122.9) 0.007
Diabetes      
Yes 309 44.46 (42.00-46.91) * 128.9 (117.3-141.8) *
No 3084 46.30 (45.26-47.35) 0.148 113.7 (110.2-117.2) 0.011
  1. *: reference group; AM, arithmetic mean; GM, geometric mean.